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Alter hizmet düzeyinin belirlenmesi ve Maslak-Zincirlikuyu kesimi

Alter hizmet düzeyinin belirlenmesi ve Maslak-Zincirlikuyu kesimi

##### Dosyalar

##### Tarih

1994

##### Yazarlar

Yazar, Metin

##### Süreli Yayın başlığı

##### Süreli Yayın ISSN

##### Cilt Başlığı

##### Yayınevi

Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü

##### Özet

Bu çalışma, Büyükdere Caddesi Maslak-Zincirlikuyu kesimi boyunca arter hizmet düzeyinin belirlenmesini içermektedir. Bu çalışmanın birinci bölümünde şehiriçi ve banliyö arterleri ve analiz yöntemleri hakkında genel bilgiler verilmektedir. İkinci bölümde, seyahat süresi dolayısıyla gecikme üzerinde en büyük etkiye sahip olan sinyalize kavşaklar ve analiz yöntemleri hakkında ayrıntılı bilgiler aktarılmak tadır. Üçüncü bölümde, Maslak-Zincirlikuyu kesiminin (her iki yönde de) tanıtımı yapılmıştır. Daha sonra arazi çalışmalarının ve hesaplamaların sonuçları tablolar halinde sunulmuştur. Dördüncü bölümde ise analiz sonuçlarının değerlen dirilmesi yapılmış ve gerekli önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

This study includes assessing the arterial level of service over the section of Maslak-Zincirlikuyu on Büyükde- re street. The arterial level of service is based on the ava- rage travel speed for the segment, section or entire arterial under consideration. This is the basic measure of effectiveness for assessing the level of service. The avarege travel speed is computed from the running time on the arterial segments and the intersection approach delay. Arterial level of service is defined in terms of avarege pravel speed of all through vehicles on the arte rial, it is strongly influenced by the number of signals per 1.6 km and the average intersection delay. On a given facility, such factors as inapprapriate signal timing, poor progression, and inereasing traffic flow can degrade the arterial level of service. Arterials with high signal densities are even more susceptible to these factors. The general approach to this research was to combine the findings from the literature and the aretical modelling with the findings from field studies to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the effect changes in the quality of flow on urban and suburban arterials and the quality of traffic signal on stopped delay, and/or approach delay. In the first chapter, some useful knowledge about the urban and suburban arterials and the metedoloji for applications are given. XI Urban and suburban arterials are signalised streets that primarily serve through traffic and provide access to abutting properties as a secondery function. They are defined as facilities with a signalized intersection which have space 3.2 km or less and turning movements at intersections that usually don't exceed 20 percent of total traffic valumes. There are three type of arterial streets in the system of urban highway transportation facilities, one of them is suburban highways and the others are collector and downtown streets. Urban and suburban arterials include multilane divided arterials, multilane undivided arterials, two way, two lane arterials and one way arterials. The operation of vehicles on arterial streets is influenced by three main factors (1). The arterial environment (2) the interaction between vehicles (3) the effect of traffic signals. The most important factor of these is the effect of traffic signals. Because they force vehicles to stop and to remain stopped for a certain time, and then release vehicles in platoon. The delays and speed changes caused by traffic signal operation considerably reduce the capacity of an urban arterial and lower the quality of traffic flow. To evaluate the level of service on an existing or proposed facility, the metodology of this chapter can be used by concerned with the planning, design, and operation of arterials. The metodology does not address arterial capacity of an arterial. Because the capacity of an arterial is generally dominated by the capacity of its signalized intersection. In the second chapter includes information about the stopped delay caused by signalized intersection and. the metodoloji with procodures for applications. Also we can say that this chapter contains procedures for the analysis of signalized intersection capacity and level of services The duration of the average stop per vehicle, or average stopped delay, depends on the proportion of red time displayed to the arterial segment, the proportion of vehicles driving on green (or quality of traffic signal progression), and the traffic volume. xii The travel speed which includes time lost due to the intersection effects, including stops and all associated approach delay. The signalized intersection is one of the most complex locations in a traffic system. Signalized inter section analysis must consider a wide variety of privailing conditions. Privailing conditions includes the amount and distribution of traffic movements, traffic composition, geometric characteristics, and the detail of intersection signalization. Here in, our subject is to definite intersection level of service under privailing conditions. The concept of capacity is very important at signalized intersections. Into this concept of capacity an additional element is introduced at the signalized intersection, time allocation. Time which is allocated has a significant impact on the operation of the intersection and on the capacity of the intersection and its approaches. Capacity is evaluated in terms of the ratio of demand flow rate to capacity (v/c ratio) while level of s service is evaluated on the basis of average stopped delay per vehicle (sn/t). The v/c ratio is the actual rate of flow on approach group of lanes during a peak 15-min interval divided by the capacity of the approuch group of lanes. Level of service is based on the average stopped delay per vehicle for various movements with in the inter section. Delay is a measure of driver discomfort, frustration, fuel comsumption, and lost travel time. Specifically, level of service criteria are stated in terms of the average stopped delay per vehicle. The average stopped delay per vehicle is estimated for each lane group, and averaged for approaches and the intersection as a whole. As described in chapter 2 stopped delay can either be measured in the field or estimated (as mentioned) using analytical equations. Also as noted in chapter 2, delay is a complex measure that is dependent on a number of variables, including cycle length, effective green time to cycle length (g/c) ratio, demand volume to signal capacity (v/c) ratio, saturation flow, and quality of progression. Of all variables impacting delay, quality of prog ression has the largest patantial effect as evidenced by the wide range of progression adjustment factors 0,40 to 1,85. Xlll In the metodology of second chapter, figure 2-1 presents a brief overview of the metodology used. Module 1 defines the intersection problem. Module 2 defines traffic demand; Module 3 determines the geometric and traffic capacity; and Module 5 determines level of serves based on calculated stopped delay. Stopped delay is estimated in chapter 2 by an equation based on emprical data as well as theoretical relationships. Undersaturated (v/c ratio 1.0) and over saturated (v/c ratio 1.0) flow can be addressed. The basic form of the delay equation is for random arrivals having a constant (uniform) average flow througout the cycle. Random arrivals occur when there is no upstream signal within 2.4 km in coordinated signal systems an a 2.2 km in uncoordinated, actuated signal systems. Other factors including turning traffic and stream friction influence the type of arrival traffic flow. The 1985 HCM delay equation for random arrivals is as follows; d = d" + d" 1 2 d= 0,38. c (l-g/c)2 |l-(g/c).X| d2= 173 X2. | (x-l)+ \/ (x-l)2+(16X/c) Third chapter of the study defines the section of Maslak-Zincirlikuyu on Büyükdere street in detail. After that the analysis of the section presented with tables. Büyükdere street is a divided arterial with three lanes in each direction and signal spacing approximately of 0,65 km passes through the 'area with somewhere modarete somewhere low density roadside development. Virtually all of the traffic passes through the area there is very little pedestrian activity or none. The simple statement that "virtually all of the traffic passes through the area" defines the functional category was the principal arterial. And the design category was found to be somewhere intermediate, some suburban design (Tablo 1.2). After this definition the arterial section divided into section and the running time, stopped delay estimates, approach estimates and travel speed was computed. xiv The final work was to assess the level of service Table 1.1 gives the arterial level of service definition for arterials. The level of service of Büyükdere street was found for evening period level of service F and for morning period level of service C and D. The final chapter includes the interpretation of results and suggestions. The results of an operational analysis will field two key results which must be considered. 1. The v/c ratio for each lane group and for the intersection as a whole. 2. Average stopped time delays for each lane group and approach and for the intersection as a whole and the level of service which correspond. Any v/c ratio greater then 1.00 is an indication of actual or potantial breakdowns, and is a condition reguiring amelioration. Where the critical v/c ratio is grater than 1.00 this is on indication that the overall signal and geometric design have inaduquate capacity for the existing flows. Improuments that might be considesed include: 1. Basic changes in interection geometry (number of lanes) 2. Lengthining the signal cycle. 3. Changing the signal phase plan. Finally the arterial and its intersections level of service indicates that unacceptable delay can exist capacity is a problem, as well as in cases where it is edequate. Further acceptable delay levels do not otoma- tically ensure that capacity is sufficient.

This study includes assessing the arterial level of service over the section of Maslak-Zincirlikuyu on Büyükde- re street. The arterial level of service is based on the ava- rage travel speed for the segment, section or entire arterial under consideration. This is the basic measure of effectiveness for assessing the level of service. The avarege travel speed is computed from the running time on the arterial segments and the intersection approach delay. Arterial level of service is defined in terms of avarege pravel speed of all through vehicles on the arte rial, it is strongly influenced by the number of signals per 1.6 km and the average intersection delay. On a given facility, such factors as inapprapriate signal timing, poor progression, and inereasing traffic flow can degrade the arterial level of service. Arterials with high signal densities are even more susceptible to these factors. The general approach to this research was to combine the findings from the literature and the aretical modelling with the findings from field studies to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the effect changes in the quality of flow on urban and suburban arterials and the quality of traffic signal on stopped delay, and/or approach delay. In the first chapter, some useful knowledge about the urban and suburban arterials and the metedoloji for applications are given. XI Urban and suburban arterials are signalised streets that primarily serve through traffic and provide access to abutting properties as a secondery function. They are defined as facilities with a signalized intersection which have space 3.2 km or less and turning movements at intersections that usually don't exceed 20 percent of total traffic valumes. There are three type of arterial streets in the system of urban highway transportation facilities, one of them is suburban highways and the others are collector and downtown streets. Urban and suburban arterials include multilane divided arterials, multilane undivided arterials, two way, two lane arterials and one way arterials. The operation of vehicles on arterial streets is influenced by three main factors (1). The arterial environment (2) the interaction between vehicles (3) the effect of traffic signals. The most important factor of these is the effect of traffic signals. Because they force vehicles to stop and to remain stopped for a certain time, and then release vehicles in platoon. The delays and speed changes caused by traffic signal operation considerably reduce the capacity of an urban arterial and lower the quality of traffic flow. To evaluate the level of service on an existing or proposed facility, the metodology of this chapter can be used by concerned with the planning, design, and operation of arterials. The metodology does not address arterial capacity of an arterial. Because the capacity of an arterial is generally dominated by the capacity of its signalized intersection. In the second chapter includes information about the stopped delay caused by signalized intersection and. the metodoloji with procodures for applications. Also we can say that this chapter contains procedures for the analysis of signalized intersection capacity and level of services The duration of the average stop per vehicle, or average stopped delay, depends on the proportion of red time displayed to the arterial segment, the proportion of vehicles driving on green (or quality of traffic signal progression), and the traffic volume. xii The travel speed which includes time lost due to the intersection effects, including stops and all associated approach delay. The signalized intersection is one of the most complex locations in a traffic system. Signalized inter section analysis must consider a wide variety of privailing conditions. Privailing conditions includes the amount and distribution of traffic movements, traffic composition, geometric characteristics, and the detail of intersection signalization. Here in, our subject is to definite intersection level of service under privailing conditions. The concept of capacity is very important at signalized intersections. Into this concept of capacity an additional element is introduced at the signalized intersection, time allocation. Time which is allocated has a significant impact on the operation of the intersection and on the capacity of the intersection and its approaches. Capacity is evaluated in terms of the ratio of demand flow rate to capacity (v/c ratio) while level of s service is evaluated on the basis of average stopped delay per vehicle (sn/t). The v/c ratio is the actual rate of flow on approach group of lanes during a peak 15-min interval divided by the capacity of the approuch group of lanes. Level of service is based on the average stopped delay per vehicle for various movements with in the inter section. Delay is a measure of driver discomfort, frustration, fuel comsumption, and lost travel time. Specifically, level of service criteria are stated in terms of the average stopped delay per vehicle. The average stopped delay per vehicle is estimated for each lane group, and averaged for approaches and the intersection as a whole. As described in chapter 2 stopped delay can either be measured in the field or estimated (as mentioned) using analytical equations. Also as noted in chapter 2, delay is a complex measure that is dependent on a number of variables, including cycle length, effective green time to cycle length (g/c) ratio, demand volume to signal capacity (v/c) ratio, saturation flow, and quality of progression. Of all variables impacting delay, quality of prog ression has the largest patantial effect as evidenced by the wide range of progression adjustment factors 0,40 to 1,85. Xlll In the metodology of second chapter, figure 2-1 presents a brief overview of the metodology used. Module 1 defines the intersection problem. Module 2 defines traffic demand; Module 3 determines the geometric and traffic capacity; and Module 5 determines level of serves based on calculated stopped delay. Stopped delay is estimated in chapter 2 by an equation based on emprical data as well as theoretical relationships. Undersaturated (v/c ratio 1.0) and over saturated (v/c ratio 1.0) flow can be addressed. The basic form of the delay equation is for random arrivals having a constant (uniform) average flow througout the cycle. Random arrivals occur when there is no upstream signal within 2.4 km in coordinated signal systems an a 2.2 km in uncoordinated, actuated signal systems. Other factors including turning traffic and stream friction influence the type of arrival traffic flow. The 1985 HCM delay equation for random arrivals is as follows; d = d" + d" 1 2 d= 0,38. c (l-g/c)2 |l-(g/c).X| d2= 173 X2. | (x-l)+ \/ (x-l)2+(16X/c) Third chapter of the study defines the section of Maslak-Zincirlikuyu on Büyükdere street in detail. After that the analysis of the section presented with tables. Büyükdere street is a divided arterial with three lanes in each direction and signal spacing approximately of 0,65 km passes through the 'area with somewhere modarete somewhere low density roadside development. Virtually all of the traffic passes through the area there is very little pedestrian activity or none. The simple statement that "virtually all of the traffic passes through the area" defines the functional category was the principal arterial. And the design category was found to be somewhere intermediate, some suburban design (Tablo 1.2). After this definition the arterial section divided into section and the running time, stopped delay estimates, approach estimates and travel speed was computed. xiv The final work was to assess the level of service Table 1.1 gives the arterial level of service definition for arterials. The level of service of Büyükdere street was found for evening period level of service F and for morning period level of service C and D. The final chapter includes the interpretation of results and suggestions. The results of an operational analysis will field two key results which must be considered. 1. The v/c ratio for each lane group and for the intersection as a whole. 2. Average stopped time delays for each lane group and approach and for the intersection as a whole and the level of service which correspond. Any v/c ratio greater then 1.00 is an indication of actual or potantial breakdowns, and is a condition reguiring amelioration. Where the critical v/c ratio is grater than 1.00 this is on indication that the overall signal and geometric design have inaduquate capacity for the existing flows. Improuments that might be considesed include: 1. Basic changes in interection geometry (number of lanes) 2. Lengthining the signal cycle. 3. Changing the signal phase plan. Finally the arterial and its intersections level of service indicates that unacceptable delay can exist capacity is a problem, as well as in cases where it is edequate. Further acceptable delay levels do not otoma- tically ensure that capacity is sufficient.

##### Açıklama

Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994

##### Anahtar kelimeler

Kavşaklar,
Sinyalizasyon,
Ulaştırma,
İstanbul-Maslak,
İstanbul-Zincirlikuyu,
Intersections,
Signalization,
Transportation,
İstanbul-Maslak,
İstanbul-Zincirlikuyu