Banka yönetimi

Ağdelen, Zafer
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bankacılık sektörü ülkelerin ekonomik ve ticari iliş kileri içinde önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Bu nedenle ban kaların yönetimi üzerinde önemle durulması gereken bir ko nudur. Bankalar, sermaye birikimi sağlayan, bu sermayeyi üçüncü şahıslara ikraz eden, ödemelere aracılık yapan, değerli evrakları kasasında saklayan, döviz işlemleri ya pan, kısaca para ticareti ile uğraşan işletmelerdir. Banka işletmelerinin faaliyetleri; sermaye koyma, örgüt lenme, servislerin tamamlanması ve halka duyurma,; mevduat toplama, fonlar ve kaynaklar bulma, müşteri ilişkileri; kredi verme, teminat ve itibar mektubu verme, mali ilişki ler; toplanan özkaynaklarla, fonlar ve yabancı kaynakların verimliliğinin araştırılması, bankacılık usul ve mevzuatı na uyguluğunun denetlenmesi şeklinde gruplandırılabilir. Bu kadar geniş bir faaliyet alanı olan bankaların yönetim ve organizasyon yapısının kurulması, en iyi şekilde işle tilmesi oldukça karmaşıktır. Bu tezin amacı bankaların yönetim ve organizasyon yapısının analiz edilerek en etkin yapının nasıl kurulabileceğinin fazla teorik ayrıntıya in meden ortaya konmasıdır. Bu amaçla özellikle tezin dördün cü bölümünde bankaların organizasyonel yapıları, planlama faaliyetleri, karar verme ve politika oluşturma yöntemleri y.b. konular ayrıntılı incelenmiş ve öneriler getirilmeye çalışılmıştır.
It Is not possible to seperate the developments in Banking sector from the Economic and social developments of a country. The Banking Sector, originating from the Middle Ages in Italy, has shown a sharp development nowadays as the world trade increased and the need for them has arisen. Banks are the financial institutions that function in the most important market, the credit market, of the country. The Banks has to function in accordance with the countriys economic policy. It is possible to see the rapid developments, in Turkish banking sector, as seen in other countries. The aim of this thesis is to study the management in Banks and to put forward some propose İs for reforming the Bank Managerial process. A general view for banking, the importance of banking and some information related with banking is given in the foreword section of the Thesis. The conceps, Management and Organisation is being studie u in the second section and briefly the following information being given. Organisation means by specialization through dividing the job into sections and finding means for coordinating the different jobs done by different persons. The Organisations has shown a sharp increase when man needed to come together. The first organisation theories, shidied the forming of men formal structure and speciali zation. Later, the behaviorists pointed the importance of the interpersonal relatione. in an organisation. Nowadays, the theorists has definedthe organisation as.. human relations system.. Dividing the job and the people doing the job is cal led.' The departments can be done with different criteria These are; 1)- Grouping according to functions, ' 2)- Grouping according to products 3)- Grouping according geographic settlement U)- Grouping according to the foswation period 5)- Grouping according time. 6)-> Grouping according products amound. The aim of the organisation is to simplify the mana gerial functions of the company, to form the division of labour, to prevent the repetitions. Management is the functions of planning organazing, orientating and editing all the jobs of the employees within the formal i nstitution considering all the resources (man, material are) and aims of the institution. The development of the management idea arised of the same time with the social and economic developments of the societies. The main functions of Management is as follows 1)- Planning: It is the plannig of what,. when, how and by whom a job is to be done. 2)- Organizing: This function includes the setting up of groups for realizing the plans, dividing into dffferent departments, and giving authority for that. XI 3)- Orientation: This function can be defined as, " guranteeng the duties, responsibilities and obligation to be done. i»)- Coordination: This function includes the methods for personell recmilting, improving education methods and set. methods for setting the salaries. In the third section of the Thesis, the Banking sec tor in being studied. A definition for banks is being given, historical background of banks is being studied, different banking types has been studied and a detailed information abo'üt the banking systems in different countries hasbeing given. Banks are institutions formed uith a set capital, or ganised according their aims forming incomes by giving some services to people and have shareholders, assets and liabilities. The common function of the Banks are as f olloujs. 1)- Collect a deposits from.. the people, 2)- Usi.-ng the deposits as credit and investment 3)- Giving some services to the deposit owners (travellers check, money orders, credit cards etc). The development in banking is closely related by the developments in the meaning of the money. The first bank was founded in Venice in 1157. The most improved bank nowaday is the Amsterdamsche Bapk in Netherlands, Banking is closely related to the business community in which it exists, and depends much for its efficiency and succes upon its adaptation to local customs. From a broad general standpoint, it is possible to recognize se veral types of banking systems. The three following chief groups may be recognized: D- The central banking system, of which the banks of England, France and others of similar kind are best examples. Xll 2)- The independ-charter banking systems, of which the Canadian is probably the best.. 3)- The free banking systems, best represented by national banking system of the United States. In the case of the central banking systems there has been developed a nucleos which represents practically the combined banking strength. The Bank of England is a good example of central banking systems. The Bank of England is the holder of bulk of reserves. In Canada and Australia, there has been organized a relatively small number of banking establishments. Under the Canadian banking system, thousands of branches scat tered throughout the Western states. Canadian and Australian systems may be regarded as representative of a fairly uell integrated and developed banking system. Banking systems classified according to operation are as follows. * The heterogeneous banking system in which a bank is authorized to perform practically any kind of business that it may chose, * The specialized banking system in which different kinds of banks are recognized and are defined by law. * The organized banking system in which the different classes or groups of banks are definetely related to one another and are given a spesified claim upon or connection with one another. The organization of Federal Reserve System in The USA may be defined as follows. xm The Federal Reserve System was created under provision of an act signed by President Wilson on December 23, 1913. The Federal Reserve Act, uilth many supplementary amend ments, provided for one of the most unusual banking sys tem in history. The preamble, or long title, of it is: "An act to provide for the establishment of Federal Reserve banks to furnish an elastic currency, to afford means of rediscounting commercial paper, to establish a more effec tive supervision of banking in the United States, and for other purposes. There are two classes of banks in the USA, under Federal Reserve System, compulsary and voluntary The first class includes all national banks. Voluntary banks are state banks, trust companies, mutual saving banks, and Morris Plan banks" The fourth section of the thesis studies the manage ment features of the banking sector. Amongst these, organizational structure and bank management, the func tions and managements of Banks bank planning functions and organization for policy setting in banks, can be seen. a Organizational structure and the prosess of bank management is quide important aspect that should be considered. Before designing an organization plan it is essential to determine the roles that the highest officers will per form regardless of the connotions of their titles, In any event, the duties, responsibilities, and accoun tability of the person or committe at thepeak of the orga nizational pyramid must be clearly defined and made known to all uiho are affected. Remaining duties should then be grouped logically. _ This grouping may be by specialization, end results, or in the case of branch banks, by geographical area. A parti cular form of grouping by specialization is the grouping of staff and service activities that are for the benefit of many functions. XIV Another important principle to be observed in designing the organizational structure is to segragate clearly the line functions from the staff functions. Line functions are those which are directly involved in accomplishing the objectives of the bank, such as processing deposit account and lending money. Only those people uith line functions have the responsibility and authority to initiate and carry through the primary activities necessary to reach the ob jectives of the institution. A lending officer is line officer. Dn the other hand, a personnel officer is a staff officer. He helps the line officers perform their duties more effectively by his counsel, guidance and assitance, but he has no authority over them. The desing of bank structure should be predicated upon functions and duties and not upon people. A good or ganizational structure will contain a number of position that are at no time related to number on the staff of the bank. While designing the branch organizational plans, the most important question is how much authority is to be placed at the branch level as. distinguished from regional headquarters or the institutional heddoffice. Another sig nificant question that must be answered before an organiza tional plan can be prepared intelligently is how much cent ralization of processing is intended. It should be noted that there may be great decentralization of decision making, but high centralization of routing processing. Furthermo re, certain processes may be centralized while others are decentralized to the branches or to regional service centers. Management attitude toward business development is another important area that must be taken into account be fore planning is commenced. Another major classification of branch ban< organization al plans is regionalization. This places the bulk of the decisions making neither in the branches nor in the head office, but rather in regional headquarters. After designing the organizational structure, the next logical step is writing spesic'ication to implement the plan. Spesif ication broadly describe the position's basic function, its purpose and its scope. This is follo wed by definitions of the responsibilities, authority and accauntability. The duties of the position shoul be so described that what is expected may be clearly understood. xv A good prosess of bank management includes some im portant factors as follows. Creation of a team: The successful operation of a bank depends on good teamuork. Teamplay connotes coope rative integrated action. The greater the role played by each member in determining stratejy, the greater the feel ing of belongining and more devotion to execution of the plans. Coordination and integration: Achievement of the objectives of the bank requires coordinated and integra ted decision making and action. Leadership: Leadreship is the obtaining of results through others. It involves such activities as motivat ing, coaching, encouraging forward planning and creating a team. Coaching: Coaching requires skills which must be understood and thoughtfully used and since its involves a relationship with another it requires tact and diplomacy, Decision making: Decision making is an art rather than a science but there are techniques which can be used to improve the quality of the conclusions reached. First of all, there should be determination of pertinent facts. After a determination of the facts has been made, it should be. learned whether any established policies are applicable. In the fiftb section Df the thesis, different sub jects related with banking is being analysed Amoungst these there are, choosing the establishment place, the problems of bank in personeli recruithents and managers, the economic problems or ban«s, bank services and the relation of banking and industry sector.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990
Anahtar kelimeler
Bankacılık, Bankalar, Organizasyon, Yönetim, Banking, Banks, Organization, Management