Türkiye'de yabancı sermayeli işletmelerin işçi ve işveren ilişkilerine etkileri

Kuğu, Aytün
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Yabancı sermaye yatırımları; bir ülke sınırları dışındaki qercek yada tüzel kişiler tarafından o ülkenin politik ve ekonomik istikrar, kültürel ve sosyal yapı gibi durumları gözönüne alınırak, o ülke sınırları içerisinde gerçekleşen yatırımlardır. Bununla birlikte yabancı sermayenin yatırım yaptığı ülke üzerinde tasarruf ve yatırım, teknoloji ve yönetim, istihdam vb. etkileri bulunmaktadır, Tezin ilk bölümleri yukarıdaki kavramlar üzerinde yoğunlaşmaktadır. Üçüncü bölüm, Türkiye'nin büyük ölçüde ihtiyaç duyduğu yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının ülkedeki gelişimini, ilgi mevzuatın etkilerini, yatırımların gelmemesinin nedenlerini ve daha fazla gelmesini sağlayacak önerileri ele almaktadır. Dördüncü bölüm ise, Türkiye'deki yabancı sermayeli işletmelerin işçi ve işveren ilişkilerine etkileri konusunda, bu işletmelerle yapılan anket çalışmaları sonuçlarından oluşmaktadır.- Ortaya çıkan en önemli sonuç ise, bu işletmelerin insan unsuruna bakış açısı olmaktadır. Bunun nedeni de yabancı sermayeli işletmelerin daha verim li olmayı amaçlamalarıdır.
Since the mid 1970's the inefficiency of capital formation has become the most important problems of deve loping countries. Regarding to the determining charcte- ristic of countries like this (such as lack of enough capital and access of labour), in order to maintain the necessary resources for development, they have to apply to two different solutions in addition to local saves. To get in debt to foreign capitals and to have foreign investments. Invesment of fûregin capital is such an investments that it taken place within the boundary of that special country and done by private and formal people inside the some boundary and also the socioeconomical conditions and cultural status of that very special country will be taken into consideration. Foreign capital investments are clas sified into two as direct foreign capital investments and portföy investments. Foreign companies, before investing in a country, make some wide-range of researches about the economical struc ture of the mentioned country, the future of the market they mill deal with, political risks and the cultural structure. All these reseaches are observed and valuated in order to decide whether investment should take place or not. Sources of research are mostly foreign financial companies, other foreign investors working in the country and other international information centers. Like everbody capitalists, too, always perfer to investiitheir capital in fields which they consider profi table. However fcheimain target is profitability and profit transfer, there are other points which are taken into account when the foreign capital invests in somewhere Economic, political, ethical and moral factors are some and the most important of these. VI A - Economic Factors (reasans) Recently the most dominant factor for a country where the foreign capital will invest in can be said tD be market attraction. Market attraction can be explained as the amount of demand for any good which is produced by a foreign investor in a country. In other word demand will encourage the foreign capital. As a results, market capacity is likely to be the main point that draws the attention of the investor who wants to maximize his profit. This is because the income of the investment depends Dn the market capacity and demand for the product will be produced. Another areat factor is availability of sources and their cast, Uideness of production factors such as supply of cheap working power is an important point. The economic points having a great role Dn the subject of the reasons of the foreign capital investments in a country are as follows: * High profitability expectancy; * Searching for new markets and to widen the markets; * The expectancy Df more profitable production; * Td overcome customs regulations and other dif ficulties in the export and import processes. * To achieve facilities for the purchase of raw material. * To widen the present market * To transfer the present technology to the other countries. As it is seen above the economic factors that affect the decision of foreign capital in investing in one country or not vary very widely. Although they are not completely independent on each other the co-oporate in many ways. Vll B- Political Reasons The subject on which the foreign capital investor cares the most is that the country should have political stability in which he will invest his many. Foreign origined capital firms say that the political situation of a country affects their investment decisions. In most cases companies avoid to investing or reinvesting in a country that has a unstable political situation. Politi cal stability which provides economical stability also affects foreign capital investments positively. Ever though the political reasons are important if the commerical expectancies are big, they can be omitted. C- Pyschological Factors PhyscholDgical factors have a great affect on foreign capital investments. These factors cause to investors to expect pesimist results of future because of the worries which arrise from the past. In brief pyschDlogic factors are important points which are taken into consideration by the foreign Drigined investors while they take their decision of investing in Turkey or evaluate other alternative countries. D- Ethical And Moral Factors Normally social structure of a country, traditional characteristics, ethical and moral concepts are not supposed tD effect foreign capital investments. Some firms painted out that, ethical and moral thoughts are not supposed to affect then however they will prefer to investion a country which they will able to adapt themselves easily. Although ethical and moral factors are not as important as commercial thoughts it will be reasonable to say that they are effective factors in investment decisions. Technical details are not as important as to brign the foreign Drigined capital to the country by themselves. Vlll In conclusion stability on political, economic, pyschological and moral concepts, good relation ships with other countries increase the attractivity of a country for foreign origined investors. Foreign capital was regarded as international capital movement by the economists. But, as foreign capitBl investments brign out administration knowledge and technology transfer connected with capital, it is quite different that other capital movements. Even though foreign capital as accepted as a capital movement, it is something further. The effects of foreign capital on the related country can be defined in many ways, we can classifiy as "Bove and Investment" "Technology and Administration Knowledge", "Employment", "Balance of Dayment",., "International Affairs" and other effects. It is quite possible to find some evidences and incerase the number of the positive and negative effects. But under the present circumstances, there is only twQ1 way to get rid of the ineguality between rich and poor countries. A labour movement from developing countries (with the problem of unemployment) to industrial countries or a capital and organization movement from industrial countries to developing countries. There is no any other alternative. In the long run, the first approach will end with a foreign enmity. Dur second method is a compromise option regarding to our own humanism, benefit and expectations. As a result, we have to evaluate this option as well as possible so that we will get the most benefit out of foreign capitals. The Historical Development of foreign capitals in Turkey : Turks became. aware of a subject like foreign capitals just after Trade Negotiation in 193B. capitu lations, foreign Debts, Duyun-u Ummumiye are the important elements showing the development of foreign capitals in QttDmal Empire. As Turkey has such a bad reputational background, Turks couldn't be courageous enough to interfere with foreign sources. During the period till 195*+, some governmental regulations took place about foreign capitals and the companies working with foreign capitals. IX It can be claimed that the encouragement of foreign capitals in Turkey, in the real sense of the meaning started by "Private Foreign Capital Encouragement Regulation" Mr. 6224 dated 1B. 1.1954. Another foreign capital Framework dated 24 Jun.19B0 l\!r B/16B with some little changes consists of radikal, rapid and some clever understanding from the some point of view. QJhen compored to the previous years, foreign capital that reached Turkey showed a great incerase after the 19BD. requlations. But still, although there is a great development, the share that Turkey will get out of foreign capitals is such a small quantity. The reason why Turkey doesn't get enough foreign capitals: - Political imbalance paralled to economical unsta- bility within the country, - Timely Dccuring govermental slogans (having national background) about foreign capitals. - The belief Df foreign counpanies which intinates that they don't have equal rihgts as local companies. - The differences between the status of Turkish Liras within time range of foreign money and the exchange value that capitals determine. Lie can summarize the proposals maintaing the regulations in accordance with foreign capital investments as follows: - The Turkish economic policy and the encouragements given to foreign capitals must be introduced to the world and active invesment policy sholud be carried out. - When the foreign capital orginated companies are allowed in Turkey, gain and loss, all the advantage and disadvantages should he worked out and during the procedure these regulations must be full filled. Mistakes shouldn't be repeated - as the efects of the mistakes may exert such negative pressure Dn the investments. - The advantages and the disadvantages of foreign capitals are evaluated within very narrow limits. The suitability of tecnology brought to the country and the pozitive effects of this technology to the administration should also be added. So evaluations just to do with gain-loss.balance is not enough. - Foreign capitals must also be evaluated in accordance with the stiuation of the country. The results Df a survey exposed to foreign capital originated companies about the effects on the relation ships between employee and employeer can be summarized as follows: 1- The must important difference between foreign capital Drginated companies and the local companies is the value given for human beign. Humanly factor is the must important factor. 2- The main principle is to evaluate the worker and the work itself so that work will be in paraleli to salary. And this can be attained by "work evaluation system". 3- Within the plans Df future, the idea of the workers is taken into consideration. *4- The workers are certainly motivated so that the result will be comprcTiised with the success of the company. 5- It's been believed that the workers have a right to represent themselves within the limits of trade union and the advantages of trade union can not be disregarded 6- "Suitable men is for suitable work" principle means a maximum work will be done by minimum human energy. 7- The labour organizatör builds uf such a certain atmosphere inside the company that this will lead productitivity of its own workers. The reason underlying the difference between local campanies is to do with the idea of the foreign companies which will be to employ the most quality and suitable worker for the business and incerase the gain and advantage by means of investment.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Türkiye, Yabancı sermaye işletmeleri, Yabancı sermaye yatırımları, İşveren, İşçiler, Turkey, Foreign capital enterprises, Foreign capital investments, Employer, Workers