Konut Planlamasında Kullanılabilecek Bir Fonksiyonel Yaklaşım Modeli

Erdoğan, Demet
Süreli Yayın başlığı
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Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Tezin amacı, konut planlamasında kullanılabilecek bir fonksiyonel yaklaşım modeli ortaya koymak ve bu modeli konut planlaması açısından değerlendirmektir. Tez dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Her bölüm kendi içinde bölümlere ayrılmıştır. Birinci bölümde, insan - konut ilişkisi üzerinde durulmuş, konut planlama sorunlarına çözüm getirebilecek yaklaşımların gerekliliği ortaya konularak, bu yaklaşımlardan biri olan fonksiyonel yaklaşım modelinin oluşturulmasına zemin hazırlanmıştır. İkinci bölümde, insan davranışlarını başlatan amaçların gereksinmelerden kaynaklandığı ortaya konmuş,gereksinme ve davranışların fiziksel çevre biçimleşme etkisi belirtilerek insan-konut ilişkisi ele alınmıştır.Buna bağlı olarak konut planlama sorunlarına değinilip konut problemini etkiyen faktörler incelenmiştir. Konuta genel anlamda yer verilerek konut türleri, işlevleri, bölümleri, tarihsel gelişimi, alt sistem ve yaşam süreleri üzerinde durulup planlama sürecinde konut fayda analizi ve bunu yaratan bileşenler ele alınmıştır. Konut planlamasına temel oluşturması açısından planlamanın tanımı, sistem-planlama sistemi, mimari planlama süreci ve evreleri ve planlama tipleri genel anlamda incelenmiştir. Konut planlaması açısından yapıyı amaçlayan ve insanı amaçlayan sistemler olmak üzere insan-konut etkileşim sistemi bellirtilmiştir.Bu bakımdan konut planlamasını etkileyen faktörlerden; kullanıcıya ilişkin, ekipmana ilişkin, eylem alanına ilişkin ve mikro çevreye ilişkin etkenler ve alt sistemlerini ortaya koymak, konunun içeriğine uygun düşmüştür. ıx Bütün bu verilerin ışığında konut planlamasında kullanılabilecek bir fonksiyonel yaklaşım modeli incelenmeye çalışılmıştır.Bu modelde çocuk yaşlan farklı olan dört aile tipi ele alınarak bunlara göre eylemler ve gereksinmelere değinilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, öncelikle tez çalışmasının ilke ve yöntemleri belirlenmiş, değerlendirme yöntemi ele alınarak tanımı ve teknikleri açıklanmıştır.Bu yönteme konut planlamasında kullanılabilecek fonksiyonel yaklaşım modelinin değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. Bu değerlendirmede örnek alınan ailelere bağlı olarak kullanım tiplerinin ve plan tiplerinin analizi sağlanmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde incelen fonksiyonel yaklaşım modelinin konut planlamasındaki yeri tartışılmış ve ortaya çıkan sonuçlar incelenerek çeşitli öneriler getirilmiştir.
The aim of this thesis is to put forward a functional approaching model for housing planning and to evaluate this model in terms of housing planning. It consists of four chapters each of which has been divided in itself. The first chapter has focused on relationship between human and housing, and pointed out the need for the new approaches that may solve some problems of housing planning, and then prepared the ground for establishing a functional approaching model. In the second chapter, it has been argued that the aims that motivate human behavior arise from the needs, and in this context taking into consideration the effects of the needs and behaviors on the physical environment, the relationship between human and environment has been discussed. And accordingly the factors that affect the housing problems have been examined. One of the most important points in housing planning is to specify correctly and properly a new set of needs for the new designs, and the other is the problem to satisfy the new needs and desires in a changing society. All environmental and societal conditions making possible for the human being to be productive and to survive without feeling uneasy physiologically, socially and psychologically are the human needs.. Physiological needs. Needs for the security XI . Social needs. Needs for self. Needs for realization User's needs are the environmental conditions that are necessary for the individual and communities to make their actions most affective.. Physical user's needs:. The spatial needs. The thermic needs. The visual needs. The needs for health. The needs for security. Phsico-social user's needs:. The needs for privacy. The aesthetic needs. The social needs. The behavioral needs Those characteristics which one expects from man's environment to realize man's vital activities are physical environmental conditors necessary for acting. And these environmental conditions must be suitable to anthropometric, sensorial and perpective dimensions of the human. After examining the human needs and relationship between the human and environment that helps to specify the problem, it will be useful to touch to the problems of housing planning. Xll . Certain stages in family circle effect the planning constantly family functions at the stage of foundation, for example, are changed at the stages of child-birth and nurturing.. On the other hand, on going social changing in connection with the rapid technological beakthrought makes it doubtfull whether it will be possible to make housing plans in the future as today done or not.. New emerging images in household and increasing time spent in the house as a result of soisal and cultural development impose more complex new functions on the usual small slipping space.. Also, with the progress of our age new needs will some what differentiate the understanding in the course of time.lt will be impossible even to name the use of the space in today sense. In the subsequent chapter, there has been given place to the housing in general sense,and then focused on the kinds,funtions, sections, sub-systems and lifetime of the house in historical development, and finally examing housing utility analaysis and its constitutive compents in the planing process. The funtions of the house are determined by those activities which have to be carried out by people using the space so that they could maintain their lives, and those which have gained importance in planing and designing.The relations between the sections of the house determine the relations between the funtions of the house. According to the sections of the house, the actions fields within the house may be grouped as follows: xm . Section for living. Space for living. Space for eating. Kitchen. Common sections. Entrance. Corridor. Wc -lavabo. Space for storage. ? Section for sleeping. Space for sleeping. Connection corridor. Space for bothing With the developing and varying human actions it has been among the functions of the house to ensure the best conditions and facilities for these actions.In this context it is an inevitable requirement to study housing utility with an analytic approach:. The house as an artificial environment. The house as a facility for actions. Psicological effects of the house. The house and social values XIV According to this analysis, the ingredients which generate the houseing utility are:. Volume systems. Constructions systems and their components. Correlations with the environment and use of terrain Following the chapters on housing, the definition of planning, the system of system- planing, the stages and process of arctitectural planning, and the types of planning have been studied generally. The house-human interaction system, as the systems aiming at construction on the one hand and at human on the other, has been pointed out in regart to housing planning. And in this respect, it has been suitable, for the content of the issue, to bring forward the sub-systems and the factors of which affect the housing planing and concern the user, equipment, action field, and micro environment. Architectural planning is the sum of the decisions about collecting and associating systematically the architectural data in reagard to the funtions, and about evaluting and directing architectural activities to achieve desired goals. The states taking paces in the planing process begin with the prior decisions about planning:.. Programming Desining Implementation. Using xv The types of planning. Funtional planning is to plan a component or a stage of the work so that a range of action could take it to the previously determined ends.And with many repetitions, the change of achievement can be estimated.. Project planning is a type of planning higly developed and always to be found in the historical process in which much many specialist branches are represented any many scientists are involved.. Comprehensive planning is made in order to affect the future of the society and contains project planning and many funcional plannings. The house-human interaction in regard to housing planning:. The systems aiming at construction Because of the fact that much of the actions in the houses are informal, it is extremely difficult to control them.The system developed by T.A. Marcus consists of four expounded sub-systems: Cost of Construction + Cost of Maintenance + Cost of Use=Total Cost. The systems aiming at the human 'Ergonomic' expounding of the house-human interaction system taking the human main element,because the fact that it aims at providing the user with neccesary spatial conformity in the house, seems suitable for the content of the issue.Ergonomic system developed by B.Schackel consists of four groups:. Human. Interactions between the equipment and human XVI . Interactions between the working area and human. Interactions between the environment and human The factors affecting the housing planning: The factors concering the user. The characteristics of the user. Activities. Family type Size of the family Economic capability of the family Educational level of the family... The factors concering the equipment. The number of equipment. The type of equipment. Use of energy. Tecnological level.. The factors concering the activity area. The number of activities. The sequence of the activties Equipment area Level of the equipment... The factors concering micro environment. Physical environment. Psico-social enviroment. xvii In the light of all these data, a functional approaching model which may be used in housing planning has been examined. In this model four family types, each of which has children at different ages, have been taken up, and accordingly the needs and actions of them have been discussed. Functional housing planning contains the use of the house, the relations and actions of the individuals, and spatial conditions for these relations and actions. Here the purpose is not optimal planning but, beyond the number and square metres of the rooms, to reveal which different and varying ways of use and events a house has to meet. In this subject, it is useful to examine the family types takes up by Deilmann. The families taken up are those with a working mother and a working father together with their children, that is, the "normal families" with four persons. While the playing, sleeping and studying action groups have been characterized in their own course of changing according to the stages in the child growing, the different actions of the parents have been used only as examples. The probable orders of the use, for the members of the family who remain at home at different daytimes, have been exposed, and necessary using areas and relations have been defined. The needs emerging according to the activities:. The needs according to the characteristic of user needs. Growing, changing of the needs. Child age groups. Family circle. Family types. The personal circumstances of the children XV1U . Qualitative needs. Daily events. Orders of the use chosen as examples Quantitative needs Samples of activity Necessary using area Samples of plans.. In the third chapter, primarily the principles and methods for preparing the thesis have been determined, and the definitions and techniques of evaluation have been explained. And the evaluation of the functional approaching model which may be used in the housing planning has been made according to this model. In this evaluation, the analyses of types of use and of plans have been carried out in relation to the families taken as examples. When a realitionship has been establisher between a person or a group and the alternatives of an objects, then the "evaluation" which is an element of decision process will appear. One of the most problems with the evaluation is to develope evaluation techniques. These techniques:. Numerical evaluation. Nominal scale. Ordinal scale. Interval scale. Ratio scale. According to this method, the evaluation of the functional approaching model is as follows: XIX By showing four different family types, it has been proved that the personal circumstances of the children peculiar to the age need for special using facilities. Four discernible types of use derived from the growing stages of the children satisfy the requirements of these family. According to the family types, actions and needs descussed, there are two possibilities for the planner in principle: either to impose his/her imagined way of life on the subsequent user, or to try to make the plan so as to match the subsequent situations when necessary. In order that the plan should meet the needs of different ways our life as much as possible, two goals are specified: 1) Variability 2) Flexibility. However, it must be remembered that variability and flexibility factors will increas the costs too. In the final chapter, the place of the functional approach in model has been discussed. Continual housing problems, from ancient times to our time, have caused primarily changes and developments in approaches used in the housing planning. The functional approaching model for planning which is the subject of this thesis has been chosen as an approach to be used in housing planning, since it is suitable to the housing planning. The aim was that the plans made by taking into consideration the action and needs bound to different family types should have properties suitable for different life processes as much as possible. It's for this reason that variability, that is, the adaptability of the plan to constructive changes and flexibility, that is, neutral using of the plan have gained so importance. However, because movable building elements and larger gaps the variability, and because of expenses for increased installations and areas the flexibility bring about increasing in the costs.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Konut planlaması, Housing planning