Esa kısa kürek yükleyicileri ve Eynez Bölgesindeki uygulama

Kahraman, Sair
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada, ilk önce ESA kesici yükleyicilerinin teknik tanıtımı yapılmıştır. Makinanın, bir madenciyi ilgilendiren tüm teknik özellikleri mümkün olduğunca verilmeye çalışılmıştır. Sonra, ESA makinalarının madencilik dalında kullanım alanları detaylı bir şekilde anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca, makina cebi açma, ayak hazırlığı, kısa ayakların ve topukların kazısı, istenilen kesitte galeri açma ve ayak uçlarındaki problemlerin çözümü şeklindeki bu kullanım alanları hakkında dünyadan en az bir tane uygulama örneği verilmiştir. Son bölümde ise, Türkiye'deki uygulama örneği incelenmiştir. Burada, işletmenin tanıtımından sonra çalışılan damarın mekanik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi için yapılan deneylerden ve sonuçlarından bahsedilmiştir. Arkasından da deneme panosunun performansı incelenmiştir,
In this study, firstly the technical characteristics of the ESA shearer loaders were introduced. The all tech nical characteristics of the different types of the ESA which interest a miner were described as far as passible. Then, the application areas of the ESA in mining branch were explained in detail. Since the first Eickhoff stablehole and face opening machine' was installed at Zolder Colliery in Belgium in 1979, this type of machine has demonstrated much success in a variety of underground operations. The first installations only served for mechaniza tion of a face opening and stablehole operation in order to reach higher advancing rates than could be achieved with conventional methods on the one hand and on the other to contribute to the further humanization of the working environment. As a winning machine on shurtwall faces the ESA successfully accomplishes its task with an installed motor power of both 60kW and 150küJ. The ESA shearers with tiltable machine body can be used for cutting the desired roadway cross-section independent of the mining method applied on the face. In any case they contribute largely to solving the prob lems encountered at the face-ends. Cutting af the stablehole with the ESA has contributed to a further mechanization of the face-end area. It not only enabled an increased face advance but also rendered the strenuous work in the stablehole area more human. In the application of at Fürst Leopold Colliery in lüulfen, ESA-60-L as a stablehole machine a face advance of approximately 8m/d and daily outputs of 3D0t of coal (maximum 3500 t of coal) were reached during three-shift operation. But, the conventional preparation of the stablehole only enabled a maximum face advance of 6m/d with a creu of 25 men. The mechanical face opening technique is devised to create rectangular cavities of small width and up to a length of 250m, in some cases under a friable roof and on a soft floor, within a relatively short period of time. Face openings can be done from a base roadway. This type of face opening is paralel to base roadway and the direction of advance is perpendicular to roadway (Fig. 2. 3), Face opening starting from a base roadway offers the following advantages. - Due to the extraction of the coal up to the roadway end there are no pillars left which would have a negative effect on the workings later on. - If the roadway is to be maintained a dam can be built immediately behind the heading equipment in the face opening. - The shield supports can be installed mare eaily than a wide face opening while drivage continues. - The evacuation of the material cut is.. independent of the installation of the shield support. - Access into the face opening from the side of the base roadway is easy. The width of a face opening depends on the following criteria: - type of face equipment to be installed -seam thickness - roof properties XI - mining method - time at which the shield supports are installed This alsa determines the type of the raaf supports to be used. The roof in the area behind the working face must be supported as soon as passible. If linear or trian gular roof supports are installed, the roof is supported by rails or Uan-Wersch raaf bars. Sliding bars can also bu used for forepoling. Chock shield supports offer a high supporting resistance near the working face due to their sliding front cantilevers. A further advantage is the integration of the roof supporting, abutment.:and shifting functions within one system. The final raaf supports which are usually of the frame type are set behind the shields. An EHF-0 chain conveyor of the ? L ' version is the standart equipment far the evacuation of the material cut and loaded. The heading conveyor overlaps the final face conve yor generally by the length of the daily advance, so that the face conveyor can be extended during the night shift. In a face opening or roadway heading, the arrange ment of conveyor curve on one side of tbe face increases the loading distance from the cutting drum to the conve yor in this area. In order to countract inefficient loading the cutting drum can be adapted to the arrangement of the curve. The following is recommended: a ' drum with a left-hand helix far a curve on the left-hand side of the face and a drum with a right-hand helix far a curve on the right -hand side of the face (pig. 2. 13, 2. 14). In March/April 1985 a face opening was driven in the Zollverein 1 seam at Osterfeld Colliery. The face opening had a width of 7.70m and a height of 1.90m. Within 2k days 2Bk.5m were driven with ESA-60-L up to the intersection in k/~5 shifts a day. The average ad vancing speed amounted to 11.85 m/d, and a maximum daily advance of 17.25m was reached. Xll Face opening from a base roadway is shown by the example of the Zalverein 1 seam with a seam thickness of 1.2m and a cutting range of 1.6m at Qsterfeld Col liery. The advancing rate amounted to approximately 60cm/shift as compared to 25m/shift in conventional face openings. ESA shortwall system takes the basic principles used in langwall mining cutting, conveying and roof supports and utilizes a single set of equipment to develop roadways, open up working faces and mine out the black of coal thus formed. ESA-6D-L or ESA-150-L allow for mining shortwall faces up to a length of approximately 50m economically. The limit is set by the smaller area exposed due ta the slower travelling speed and the narrower web as compared with double-ended ranging arm drum shearer loaders. The sub-level method is frequently applied for mining thick seams, but shortwall faces an which the roof caal is drawn off are also widely worked. Moreover, the short- wall method is applied far the extraction of residual pillars or as an alternative far board-and-stall workings. In a single entry mining system the ESA offers the possibility of driving the later haulage road and of opening a face with the same equipment, so that a short- wall face can then be mined on the retreat (Fig. 2. 26). The major advantages of the ESA shortwall system, are: can deal with geologically disturbed areas and can mine isolated areas of coal, same equipment used for development and pillar recovery, low capital costsjearly andeffective support provided in headings and full sup port by shields during pillar recovery, high mining reco veries passible; high productivities passible, and very 'safe mining system. The major disadvantages are: requires additional equipment to excavate cross-cuts; cutting equipment not mobile like continuous miner and road-headers, thus limiting machine flexibility and requiring dismantling and transportation between working places; and requires cavable roof for application of high extraction methods, but can be readily applied to partial extraction. Xlll Since 1982 the ESA-6G-L is successfully installed in the soft lignite underground mine Stolzenbach. -jn 1^ panels with face lengths from 30 t'o 50m average advancing rates of up to 7m/shift and outputs up to 1^00 t/shift have been reachedrup to now. Face-end systems define the term 'spatially' and according to the work to be carried out and covers the many relationship and interactions of deposit effects, face equipment, the method of driving roadways, the position of the heading in relation to the face and adaptation to the T-junction and the parts of the gate roads affected by rock pressure. High advancing rates can only be reached, if the face-end technique is adapted to the face operations in an optimum way. With regard to location and time and the dependence of the roadway heading to the position of the face-end area can be classified as: - in-line roadways - lagging roadways - advanced roadways In the face-end area, depending on its type and the seam thickness involved the ESA machines can perform thefollawingfunctions: - partial extraction of the roadway cross-section as well as elimination of shunting on shearer faces on of the stablehole on plough faces - extraction of the whole roadway cross-section. The roadway cross-section can be profiled by simple means either manually or by an electronical control sys tem. Alignment control is ensured by a laser which is suspended in the roadway. In the Belgian mines the ESA is used as a face-end system on shearer loader or plough faces as well as in advanced roadway headings. xiv At the Zolder Colliery the ESA-60-L and ESA-60.-K uere installed in advanced roadway headings and haulage roadways. The tail gate roads of two plough faces in lev/el in inclined seams were driven by the ESA at the collieries Nordstern and liJesterholt. In the fourth chapter, the application of the E5A short- wall system in Turkey was explained. First, Soma Coalfield in which ESA system is appli- cated was introduced. Then, Schmidt hammer, paint load, impact strength and cone indenter tests carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of the coal seam were described and test results were summarized. After that the operational system of the pilot shortwall panel was given and the performance of the panel was investigated. The best daily advance of D.93m and the best monthly advance of 28m were reached. Advanc ing speed is lower because of sub-level caving and semi- conventional roof supports(hydraulic props and roof bars). Although the coal is very hard, the ESA-6DL successfully executes cutting operation.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Maden Mühendisliği ve Madencilik, ESA kesici yükleyiciler, ESA makineleri, Mining Engineering and Mining, ESA shearer loaders, ESA machinery