Hidrojen peroksit ağartmasının kumaş ve boyama özelliklerine etkisi

Gürsoy, Nevin Çiğdem
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Pamuklu örme kumaşların hidrojen peroksit ile değişik şartlar altında, ağartılması kumaşın baza özellMerinin değişmesine yol açabilmektedir. Bu değişmelerin araştırılması amacıyla hidrojen peroksit ağartmasının kumaş ve boyama özelliklerine etkisi konulu tez çalışması yapılmıştır. Seçilen örme kumaş numunesinden her biri 20 gram olan 5 adet kumaş alınıp değişik ağartma şartlarında işleme tabi tutulduktan sonra beyazlık, sanlık ve patlama mukavemet değerleri ölçülmüştür. Ağartma sonucunda 5 adet numunenin de beyazlık, sanlık ve mukavemet değerlerinin farklı olduğu görülmüştür. Daha sonra bu 5 adet ağartılmış numunenin her birinden 14 gram kumaş numunesi alınıp bunun 7 gramı %0,5'lik, diğer 7 gramı da %2,5'lik aynı tip reaktif boyarmadde ile boyanmıştır. Boyama sonucunda boyanmış kumaşlar ISO 3'e göre yıkanıp kurutulduktan sonra yıkama, kuru ve yaş sürtme haslık deneyleri yapılmıştır. Sonuçlar renk ölçüm cihazında değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca boyamadan sonra mukavemet ölçümleri de yapılmıştır. Elde edilen neticeler değerlendirildiğinde artan beyazlık derecelerine parelel olarak mukavemet değerlerinde az da olsa bir düşüş ve aynca ağartma sonrası yapılan boyama işlemi neticesinde de yine beyazlık derecesiyle orantılı olarak mukavemetin ağartılmış kumaş mukavetine göre bir miktar daha düşük olduğu tesbit edilmiştir.
In this study, the effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching on dyeing and fabric properties have been examined. A knitted cotton fabric as a base material and hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, washing agent and a reactive dyestuff are used through out this study. Cellulose is one of the main constituents of all plants, grasses and trees, but only in the cotton fiber it is found in a fairly uncombined form. That is, cotton cellulose can be freed from most of its impurities by mechanical or solvent action, whereas other sources require chemical action. Cotton contains about 91 % cellulose. In this study, the word cellulose will be assumed to mean cotton cellulose. If a few facts about the chemistry of cellulose are learned, then many of the fundamentals of the chemistry and bleaching of cotton can be learned easily. The a and P forms of glucose differ only in chemical arrengement. a - Glucose P - Glucose Figure : Chemical arrangement of a glucose and p glucose. The method of linking the glucose is between the carbon atoms in the 1- 4 positions; this linkage also occurs in maltose and hence in starch, but in this case a - glucose is involved. Comparision of atomic models shows that in maltose the hydroxyl group in the 4 position is below the plane of ring and in a position to combine with the hydroxyl of the other glucose residue and the two rings are then in alignment. This condition can only be realised in the case of cellobiose by turning one of the P - glucose units through 180° so as to bring the hydroxyl in the 1 position of one unit below the plane in order to unit with the hydroxyl in the 4 position of the other glucose unit. CHOH 2 CH2OH Figure : Cellobiose Cotton is one of the oldest fibers used for textile purposes. It has been used for thousands of years. In many parts of the world, especially in the tropical regions of North America, South America, India, Egypth, China and Africa, the climate is suitable for the growth of cotton. The cotton fiber is a long single cell closed at one end. The indivudial cotton hair in growth consists of a long single tubular cell, with one end attached to the seed. It is roughly cylindrical with a lumen or central canal running through it. When the enclosing pod has burst, and the hair is removed from seed, the cell collepses and becomes a flat ribbon - like structure which, on exposure to light and air, becomes coiled into an irregular spiral band. The hair consists of the canal or lumen, the secondary and the primary wall. The lumen contains the remains of the protoplasm. The lumen also contains the endochrome, which gives the cotton its natural colour. The secondery thickening is composed of cellulose. The primary wall or cuticle appears to be a protective layer. The main objects in the bleaching of cotton are the removal of natural and adventitius impurities by the production of pure white material. The extent VII of this purification is largely determined by the purpose for which the material is intended. The foreign substances associated with cotton cellulose are waxes, proteins, mineral matter and the natural colouring material. There are mainly two types of bleaching; a) Hypochlorite bleaching b) Peroxide bleaching In this study, knitted cotton fabric samples are bleached with hydrogen peroxide. Sodium silicate is used as a stabilizator. Other chemical agents are sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Weight for unit area of the fabric which is used in this study is 145 g/m2. Five samples have been bleached by using different recepies. Then whiteness and yellowness of the bleached samples were measured by using colour matching instrument. Bursting strength of bleached samples were measured. The results were showned graphicaly. The bleached samples are dyed by using reactive dyesruff at different concentrations. Then crocking fastness, colour fastness and bursting strength of the dyed samples were measured. VIII 5 50 52 54 56 58 60 CiE Whiteness 62 64 66 Figure : The effect of CIE whiteness on bursting strength values. 2 4 6 8 Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration (ml/l) 10 Figure:The effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration on CIE whiteness values. IX 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sodium Silicate Concentration (ml/l) Figure : The effect of sodium silicate concentration on CIE values. C5 CO 0 2 4 6 8 10 Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration (ml/l) Figure : The effect of hydrogen perokside concentration on yellowness values. 12 11 10 T" O Hi e r 8 9 ıo Sodium Slicate Concentration (ml/l) 11 Figure : The effect of sodium silicate concentration on yellowness values.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
ağartma, boyama, hidrojen peroksit, kumaşlar, bleaching, dyeing, hydrogen peroxide, fabrics