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Tek katlı prefabrik sanayi yapılarının karşılaştırılması ve bir sistem önerisi

Tek katlı prefabrik sanayi yapılarının karşılaştırılması ve bir sistem önerisi

##### Dosyalar

##### Tarih

1993

##### Yazarlar

Yavuz, Mehmet

##### Süreli Yayın başlığı

##### Süreli Yayın ISSN

##### Cilt Başlığı

##### Yayınevi

Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü

##### Özet

Kalxp maliyetlerinin artması, kısa zamanda bina inşa etme gereksinimi inşaat sektörünü giderek prefabrik inşaata yöneltmiştir. Dünyadaki gelişme paralel olarak ülkemizde de prefabrike inşaat ve prefabrike eleman üreten fabrika sayısı hızla artmaktadır, ülkemizde prefabrikasyonun en çok kullanımı sanayi yapılarında görülmek +-prU Ve bu sanayi yapıları da yaygın olarak 5~10m yükseklikli, tek katlı ve tek veya çok açıklıklı olarak inşa edilmektedir. Bu çalışmada tek katlı prefabrik sanayi yapıları ince lenmiştir. Prefabrik sanayi yapılarından çok yaygın olarak kullanılan iki ayrı tip seçilerek bunlar maliyet ve yapısal karekteristikleri açısından karşılaştırılmış ve yeni bir ya pı tipi önerilmiştir. Çalışma dört bölümden ibarettir. Birinci bölümde prefabrikasyonun üstünlükleri anlatılmış ve Türkiye'de yay gın olarak uygulanan tek katlı bazı prefabrik sanayi yapılar ının şematik resimleri verilmiştir. İkinci bölümde seçilen ve önerilen prefabrik sanayi yapısı tipleri tanıtılmış, bu tiplerin statik ve dinamik çözümleri yapılmış ve her biri için beton ve demir metrajları tablo halinde verilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ile bu yapıların maliyeti ve yapısal karekterstikleri karşılaştırılmıştır. üçüncü bölümde çatı kirişi (tepe elemanı) ile kolonun (kenar eleman) birleşim yeri sonlu eleman yöntemiyle yaklaşık olarak analiz edilmiş ve bu birleşim için bir yaklaşık dönme redörü tayin edilerek çerçeve elastik birleş imli olarak çözülmüş, karşılaştırmalar yapılmıştır. Son bölümde elde edilen sonuçlar açıklanmıştır.

The construction sector has shown a gradual tendency towards the prefabricated construction due to both the increases in matrix costs and the necessity for most rapid completion of buildings. In parallel to the development experienced throughout the world, the number of the factories producing prefabricated construction and prefabricated elements show a great increase in our country, too. The use of pre fabrication in our country is seen in the industrial buildings. The industrial buildings are constructed as one- storey, one or multi-openning and with a height of 5-10 meter generally. In this study, we have examined the prefabricated industrial buildings of one-storey. The two most widel- used and different types of prefabricated industrial buildings were selected. A comparison was made between these types in terms of cost and structural characteristics. And finally, a new system for prefabricated buildings was proposed (third type). The industrial building proposed was compared with the other two types. The study have been divided into four parts. In the first part, we have described the superiorities of and we also have given the schematic pictures of some prefabricated industrial buildings applied in Turkey. In the second part, we have explained the selected and proposed prefabricated industrial building types. The static and dynamic analysis and also the concrete and iron metering of each are included in this part. The prefabricated building systems examined are shown below; First Type Second Type Third Type Figure 1. Examined prefabricated systems The results of all systems analysed are as follows; Framework opening : 20. 0m vii Framework spac ing : 6.0m Height : 6. 0m The roof covering is double-layer eternite and the snof load taken is 0.075 t/m2. It is accepted that the three kinds of prefabricated buildings are in the primary earthquake area. In the primary earthquake areas, the region coefficient for earthquake is, for prefabricated buildings, (Co) 0.12. The earthquake coefficient (C) was calculated based on the relationship of C= Cq. K. S. I Here, K=l 1=1 The special period of the building was determined in order to calculate the dynamic coefficient of the building (S). The dynamic coefficient of the building was calculated with the following relationship» S= l/( |0.8-T-To| ) The static analysis were carried out with the framework supports built-in under earthquake loads. It was regarded, under the horizontal earthquake loads being vertical to the framework plane, that the column acts as the console beam and the second^degree bending moments are taken into consideration. The reinforced concrete calculation was made based on the most infavourable condition by superposing the cross- section effects consisting of vertical loads and earthquake loads. The dynamic analysis of the systems examined was made by using the mode superposition method as well as the general purpose computer program called SAP80. For the accelaration spectrum of the ground movement, we have taken the 0.05 damped accelaration spectrum given by Hausser as a basis. For the primary earthquake area# a calculation was made with an accelaration of 0.40g according to new earthquake specification. In the static and dynamic analysis, the concrete elasticity module (E) and concrete poisson rates (v) were taken respectively as 3180.000 t/m2 and 0.20. In the reinforced concrete calculation, StI and Still a steels and C30 concrete were used. viii It was understood from the metering of concrete and iron obtained as a result of the static and reinforced concrete calculation that the cost of first type and the proposed type (third type) is much the same and that these types are more economical than second type. It is very evident that the cross-section widths of teh edge element (column) and the top element (roof beam) must be the same in the prefabricated buildings of first and third type. The earthquake forces increase in the systems having a large building gravity. This situation correpondingly increases the column dimension which is vertical to the plane of framework. As a result of this, the width of the top element is also increased. In this way, an unnecessary cost increase is incurred. The prefabricated industrial buildings of second type, having a roof -beam* s width is independent from the column width, should be preferred in such a case because of their economical use. The results obtained from the dynamic analysis have shown that the second type is more elastic than other two types and that the dynamic characteristics of the first type and the second type are similar to each other. In the third part, the conjunction point of the first type prefabricated industrial buildings was examined and the approximate numerical results for the rotation coefficient elastic conjunction were obtained. The measurements given in the following figure were received from the application. In this detail, two special- made bolts of 26 are tightened, following the mounting, with a distance of 60cm. from each other. It is tried to balance the gliding of the top element over the edge element with the friction of upper concrete with the lower one and also with the durability of bolts. The two bolts receive also some-what bending moment. After mounting, some vertical spacings are left in the lower and upper sections of conjunction point. As a result of this, it is difficult to say something on whether this conjunction is fully continious or fully hinge. 80 em -fit- ?+- _£e_ ?^ Fibure 2. The connection between side and top elements ix For the purpose of determining the rotation coefficient of this conjunction, a part which is three times longer than conjunction length was removed from the beam. Some unit moments making tension from both ends in the same direction were to the beam part. Later this part was idealized by dividing the rectangle plate into finite elements. There are two freedoms on each corner of the rectangle plate's finite element and also some plane tension is available. Akxn 60^ 7*- 80 _2fi_ ~t ec. -t + 2t,0om ?f Fibure 3. Supported type of connection The same idealization was made continuously, that is to say, when no elastic conjunction is available. This idealization was made for different nodal points and also for the same load and support conditions. Calculations of 9 rotations were made for both of them. Ifcm -l-tm Fibure 4. Idealizated system. The 6 rotation in both ends of the elastic conjunction system shown in figure above is equal to the total of 9S rotation of the same system having no elastic conjunction and the additional 9e rotation occured due to the elastic conjunction. That is to say, 9= 9s+9e here is 9e= M/R9 and R6= l/9e is fonud for M: 1.0 tm. The 0 rotation of the idealized system having elastic conjunction is 0= 0.0002438 rad. and the 0s rotation of the continuous (having no elastic conjunction) system is 0S= 0.0001698 rad. From here-, we find 0e=O. 000074 rad. Also we find Re= l/0e= 13514 tm/rad. as the rotation coefficient. The principal terms of the rigidity matrix of the correctaxis and stable cross-section rod having the Rgi and R0j conjunctions in both ends againts the rotation were put in a computer program. The principal terms of the rigidity matrix of this rod are provided below; k-._ 4EI l+0.75aj ? EI.ii_ L H-ai+aj+0.75aıaj~ * L TT 2EI 1 _H.. EI k1d= bi-, L L l+ai+aj+0.75aiaj İril- 4EI 1,f0<75ai S_ L l+a^+aj+0.75a^aj o± = 4EI R0iL aj = 4EI R0jL xx The 6i/Sj terminal rotations and the f^, f-: built-in (embedding) moments may also be written as follows; fi= (aiAi-bijAjî/L fj= (bijAj-ajAj)/L EJ6k=Ak (k=i,j) An analysis of framework having elastic conjunction was made for the horizontal and vertical cases. The bending moments found were compared with the conjunction point is continuous and hinge. According to this, the bending moment in the elastic conjunction analysis has shown a decrease when compared with that of the continuous case. And, in the border element's slope, bending moment in the top element has shown an increase when compared with that of continuous case. However, the maximum relative error made due to continuous acceptance of this conjunction is %10. Therefore, this conjunction may be practically accepted continuously with the detail given.

The construction sector has shown a gradual tendency towards the prefabricated construction due to both the increases in matrix costs and the necessity for most rapid completion of buildings. In parallel to the development experienced throughout the world, the number of the factories producing prefabricated construction and prefabricated elements show a great increase in our country, too. The use of pre fabrication in our country is seen in the industrial buildings. The industrial buildings are constructed as one- storey, one or multi-openning and with a height of 5-10 meter generally. In this study, we have examined the prefabricated industrial buildings of one-storey. The two most widel- used and different types of prefabricated industrial buildings were selected. A comparison was made between these types in terms of cost and structural characteristics. And finally, a new system for prefabricated buildings was proposed (third type). The industrial building proposed was compared with the other two types. The study have been divided into four parts. In the first part, we have described the superiorities of and we also have given the schematic pictures of some prefabricated industrial buildings applied in Turkey. In the second part, we have explained the selected and proposed prefabricated industrial building types. The static and dynamic analysis and also the concrete and iron metering of each are included in this part. The prefabricated building systems examined are shown below; First Type Second Type Third Type Figure 1. Examined prefabricated systems The results of all systems analysed are as follows; Framework opening : 20. 0m vii Framework spac ing : 6.0m Height : 6. 0m The roof covering is double-layer eternite and the snof load taken is 0.075 t/m2. It is accepted that the three kinds of prefabricated buildings are in the primary earthquake area. In the primary earthquake areas, the region coefficient for earthquake is, for prefabricated buildings, (Co) 0.12. The earthquake coefficient (C) was calculated based on the relationship of C= Cq. K. S. I Here, K=l 1=1 The special period of the building was determined in order to calculate the dynamic coefficient of the building (S). The dynamic coefficient of the building was calculated with the following relationship» S= l/( |0.8-T-To| ) The static analysis were carried out with the framework supports built-in under earthquake loads. It was regarded, under the horizontal earthquake loads being vertical to the framework plane, that the column acts as the console beam and the second^degree bending moments are taken into consideration. The reinforced concrete calculation was made based on the most infavourable condition by superposing the cross- section effects consisting of vertical loads and earthquake loads. The dynamic analysis of the systems examined was made by using the mode superposition method as well as the general purpose computer program called SAP80. For the accelaration spectrum of the ground movement, we have taken the 0.05 damped accelaration spectrum given by Hausser as a basis. For the primary earthquake area# a calculation was made with an accelaration of 0.40g according to new earthquake specification. In the static and dynamic analysis, the concrete elasticity module (E) and concrete poisson rates (v) were taken respectively as 3180.000 t/m2 and 0.20. In the reinforced concrete calculation, StI and Still a steels and C30 concrete were used. viii It was understood from the metering of concrete and iron obtained as a result of the static and reinforced concrete calculation that the cost of first type and the proposed type (third type) is much the same and that these types are more economical than second type. It is very evident that the cross-section widths of teh edge element (column) and the top element (roof beam) must be the same in the prefabricated buildings of first and third type. The earthquake forces increase in the systems having a large building gravity. This situation correpondingly increases the column dimension which is vertical to the plane of framework. As a result of this, the width of the top element is also increased. In this way, an unnecessary cost increase is incurred. The prefabricated industrial buildings of second type, having a roof -beam* s width is independent from the column width, should be preferred in such a case because of their economical use. The results obtained from the dynamic analysis have shown that the second type is more elastic than other two types and that the dynamic characteristics of the first type and the second type are similar to each other. In the third part, the conjunction point of the first type prefabricated industrial buildings was examined and the approximate numerical results for the rotation coefficient elastic conjunction were obtained. The measurements given in the following figure were received from the application. In this detail, two special- made bolts of 26 are tightened, following the mounting, with a distance of 60cm. from each other. It is tried to balance the gliding of the top element over the edge element with the friction of upper concrete with the lower one and also with the durability of bolts. The two bolts receive also some-what bending moment. After mounting, some vertical spacings are left in the lower and upper sections of conjunction point. As a result of this, it is difficult to say something on whether this conjunction is fully continious or fully hinge. 80 em -fit- ?+- _£e_ ?^ Fibure 2. The connection between side and top elements ix For the purpose of determining the rotation coefficient of this conjunction, a part which is three times longer than conjunction length was removed from the beam. Some unit moments making tension from both ends in the same direction were to the beam part. Later this part was idealized by dividing the rectangle plate into finite elements. There are two freedoms on each corner of the rectangle plate's finite element and also some plane tension is available. Akxn 60^ 7*- 80 _2fi_ ~t ec. -t + 2t,0om ?f Fibure 3. Supported type of connection The same idealization was made continuously, that is to say, when no elastic conjunction is available. This idealization was made for different nodal points and also for the same load and support conditions. Calculations of 9 rotations were made for both of them. Ifcm -l-tm Fibure 4. Idealizated system. The 6 rotation in both ends of the elastic conjunction system shown in figure above is equal to the total of 9S rotation of the same system having no elastic conjunction and the additional 9e rotation occured due to the elastic conjunction. That is to say, 9= 9s+9e here is 9e= M/R9 and R6= l/9e is fonud for M: 1.0 tm. The 0 rotation of the idealized system having elastic conjunction is 0= 0.0002438 rad. and the 0s rotation of the continuous (having no elastic conjunction) system is 0S= 0.0001698 rad. From here-, we find 0e=O. 000074 rad. Also we find Re= l/0e= 13514 tm/rad. as the rotation coefficient. The principal terms of the rigidity matrix of the correctaxis and stable cross-section rod having the Rgi and R0j conjunctions in both ends againts the rotation were put in a computer program. The principal terms of the rigidity matrix of this rod are provided below; k-._ 4EI l+0.75aj ? EI.ii_ L H-ai+aj+0.75aıaj~ * L TT 2EI 1 _H.. EI k1d= bi-, L L l+ai+aj+0.75aiaj İril- 4EI 1,f0<75ai S_ L l+a^+aj+0.75a^aj o± = 4EI R0iL aj = 4EI R0jL xx The 6i/Sj terminal rotations and the f^, f-: built-in (embedding) moments may also be written as follows; fi= (aiAi-bijAjî/L fj= (bijAj-ajAj)/L EJ6k=Ak (k=i,j) An analysis of framework having elastic conjunction was made for the horizontal and vertical cases. The bending moments found were compared with the conjunction point is continuous and hinge. According to this, the bending moment in the elastic conjunction analysis has shown a decrease when compared with that of the continuous case. And, in the border element's slope, bending moment in the top element has shown an increase when compared with that of continuous case. However, the maximum relative error made due to continuous acceptance of this conjunction is %10. Therefore, this conjunction may be practically accepted continuously with the detail given.

##### Açıklama

Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993

##### Anahtar kelimeler

Prefabrike,
Yapı analizi,
Prefabricate,
Structure analysis