Spor perakende sektörünün yer seçimi kriterleri: İstanbul örneği

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Tarih
2017
Yazarlar
Kayacan, Tolga
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Perakende sektörü, ortaya çıkışından bu yana sürekli bir gelişim halindedir. Yerel ölçekte kurulan bazı perakende firmaları, zamanla ölçek büyüterek ulusallaşmış, hatta bazı firmalar kendi ülkeleri dışında da mağazalar açmaya başlamıştır. Genel olarak insanların yoğun olarak kullandıkları akslar üzerinde, mümkün olan en çok sayıda müşteriye ulaşabilmek amacıyla yer seçimi yapan perakendecilerle birlikte, yer seçimi konusunun bilimselleşmesi adına bilim insanları tarafından da özellikle perakende sektörünün yer seçimi için çok sayıda çalışma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmaların sonuçları farklı olabilmekle birlikte, yer seçimi konusunda ortak sonuçlar çıkarabilmek de mümkündür. Sektörde kendi kriterlerini belirlemiş perakende firmaları ile birlikte, özellikle perakende sektörüne yeni giren firmalar, yer seçimi için bazı bilimsel çalışmalardan faydalanmakta ya da profesyonel destek almaktadır. Ancak zamanla her firma, hitap ettiği müşteri profiline, sattığı ürüne, vb. verilere bağlı olarak kendi yer seçimi kriterlerini oluşturmaktadır. Son yıllarda özellikle yabancı yatırımcıların da sektöre girmesiyle birlikte, ülkemizdeki perakende sektöründe mağaza sayısında önemli artışlar gözlenmektedir. Perakende sektörünün diğer alt sektörlerinde olduğu gibi, mağaza sayısı artışı spor perakende sektöründe de gözlenmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, mağaza yer seçiminde spor perakende sektörünün hangi yer seçimi kararları ve kriterlerini göz önünde bulundurduklarının tespit edilmesidir. Bu karar ve kriterlerin belirlenmesi amacıyla, öncelikle, perakendenin değişmez ve en önemli gerçeği olan müşteriler ile anket çalışmaları yapılmıştır. Müşterilerin spor alışkanlıklarının da belirlenip birlikte değerlendirilebilmesi amacıyla, spor salonlarını kullanan müşteriler ile de ayrı bir anket çalışması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Son olarak üçüncü bir anket çalışması da mağaza çalışanları ile gerçekleştirilerek ilk iki çalışmayı destekleyip desteklemediği incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre spor perakende mağazalarından alışveriş yapanların büyük çoğunluğunun, sporu sıklıkla yapan veya bir yaşam biçimi haline getiren, genellikle yüksek okul mezunu ve yüksek gelir grubuna dahil kişiler oldukları belirlenmiştir. Ancak yalnızca moda ve görünüm amacıyla bu mağazalardan alışveriş yapan önemli bir kitle de bulunmaktadır. Diğer perakendeciler gibi spor perakende mağazaları da kolay ulaşılabilir olan ve yüksek sayıda müşteriye hitap edebileceği lokasyonları tercih etmektedir. Günümüzde sundukları imkanlar, ulaşım kolaylıkları ve ihtiyaç duyulan tüm ürünleri sağlayan mağazaları bünyelerinde barındırmaları gibi nedenler ile alışveriş merkezleri en uygun lokasyonlar olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır.
Emerged based on exchange system, retail had changed into closed spaces with the foundation of currency and with the settled life of humans. Caravanserais and big bazaars where same kinds of goods are sold, played a great role in development of retail. In Europe, department stores emerged in 19th century and chain stores emerged in the beginnings of 20th century. In 1950s, malls emerged in the USA and even now they are still important symbols of retail sector. In 18th century Europe, methods of retail and retail stores were changed and general stores which stock many random goods emerged. Food, clothes, hardware and furniture were sold together in one store. In 19th century, department stores emerged as an extension of general stores in 18th century. Department stores removed the chance of bargain with fixed prices. By the end of 19th century, chain stores were to be seen in Europe, especially in Britain and the Netherlands. 20th century was the century of "retail evolution". Store format where customers can walk in the store and examine all the goods freely, self-service priority and low prices were named as "supermarkets" in 1930s. After 1950s and 60s, malls where stores selling different kinds of goods emerged in the USA. Reaching enough development in national borders, retailers who wish to continue to expand, started internationalisation. In this way, retailers start to address to different customer profiles in different countries. Strategic expansion in internationalisation is towards emerging markets. Emerging markets grow faster than the economies experienced industrial evolution and provide more profit chances. These economies with high growth ratios have the opportunities of large market geography, young work force, local sales potential and attractive opportunities of supply resources. First internationalisation move is the American companies engaged in outside national borders in 1960s. During 1970s, Japanese companies strike a blow especially in electronics and construction vehicles, becoming a threat for American companies. In 1980s, multinational company concept was born and the competition became more serious. In Turkey, mass production in industry started much later than Europe, so modern retail developed in later periods. In 19th century, department stores and passages were opened in Beyoğlu, Istanbul, with the influence from Europe. In the beginnings of 1950s, first supermarkets were opened with new laws, giving authority to municipalities, to open reduced sale stores. After 1970s, retail stores and supermarkets started to be opened all around the country. During this period, Turkey started to attract foreign investment from other countries. By the end of 1980s, first malls were opened in Istanbul and Ankara. Leasable mall areas grew vastly in Turkey especially in 2000s, with many new mall openings. With around 1 million squaremeters of leasable are in 1999, this number exceeded 2 million squaremeters by 2005. And it even exceeded 6 million squaremeters by 2010. Foreign investments on malls supported this development. By the end of 2015, there are 360 malls in 58 cities. Sports retail sector performed a great development in Turkey, especially in the last few years. With the increase of healthy living conciousness, consumers started to spare expenses for sports. In the present time, sports retail sector in Turkey has a volume of 6 billion TRY and has an annual growth rate of 6%. In Turkey's sports retail sector, foreign investment stands out. Brands like Adidas, Nike, Hummel and Decathlon are increasing their share in the market, with new store openings. By this fast and great development, site selection became even bigger challenge for not only sports retail sector, but also the whole retail sector. The establishment site is the place where a company will operate after establishment. The operation in the site is very important for the company to survive. Thus, it shows the importance of the site selection for this company. Because after site selection and establishment of the company, it will cause big financial problems if it is understood the site selection decision was wrong. Four main factors are considered during a site selection decision process: economical factors, natural factors, social factors and psychologic-physiologic-political factors. Also different methods are considered during a site selection process. Companies decide the site according to their operations, the customer profile they address to, the goods they will produce, costs, etc. The mostly used site selection methods are: comparison of factors, center of gravity, cost analysis, load-distance method, at par analysis and transportation model. Also many theories have been developed about site selection. They attempted to explain the site selection of companies with scientific facts. Although these theories have received considerable support, they have also been challenged and criticized by some researchers, some of whom proposed counter theories. These theories have undergone a lot of changes in time, but some of them still remain valid today. Main site selection theories are as follows: central place systems, bid rent theory, retail gravitation, multipurpose shopping and retail agglomeration and spatial interaction and competing destinations. Based on the explained factors, methods and theories for site selection, it can be stated that many choices and evaluation methods for site selection and companies need to decide which factors are important for them to select the most suitable site for their operations. The aim of the thesis, is to determine the location selection decisions and criterias of sports retail sector for selecting the location of its stores.To determine these decisions and criterias, first study is to make surveys with the most important fact of retail, customers. Also to determine the sports habits of customers, another survey study is made with users of sports centers, and results of these two studies are considered together. Third survey study is made with the employees of sports retail stores to see if their point of view supports the results of first two studies. Generally speaking, especially young population in Istanbul is seen to be visiting sports centers to do sports at least 2 times a week. Users choose sports centers close to their workplaces or homes, within a maximum of 20 minutes of reach. Being loyal to the sports center used, users can choose other sports center when their demands are not met. But most of the users participated the survey stated that they are quite happy with the sports center they currently use. The equipment used in the sports centers are obtained from well-known sports retail brands. For the sports retail stores, the customer profile is mostly formed of young women. The most important factors for a retail store to be preferred are the product quality and finding every equipment that is been searched for. With these aims, customers can travel distances more than 30 minutes. The loyalty is not good as sports centers, customers can prefer different stores according to what they are looking for. In the present time, malls appear in as places where retailers conglomerate and where different functions and activities come together. They are places where customers can reach different kinds of goods in one place and where they can spend long time with different activities such as entertainment, eating/drinking, etc. Thus, sports retail stores also prefer malls to open stores, as other retail sectors. In addition, sports retailers open stores on streets, where there are many people and cars passing by. But with the bad situation in Turkey's economy for the last years, street stores are being closed one by one. While Turkish Lira is losing value against dollar and euro, the demands of the landlords remain same and this compels the companies in income-outcome ratios. For this reason, many companies prefer to close their street stores. Also climate conditions and transportation issues play a big role in street store retailing. Especially in winter conditions, customers prefer closed areas to spend their times and for their free-time activities, so they prefer to go to malls. Parking problem of Istanbul, in addition to its traffic problem, also effects street stores. Considering the fact that most of the companies in the sector are closing down their street stores and companies that have a stand-alone concept tend to open stores in malls, it can be stated that sports retail sector has started to focus on investing in malls. Opportunities that malls provide, customer attraction power, and easy access attract sports retail sector to malls as well. Customer crowd in malls especially on weekends and their cosmopolitan nature are also among the reasons why sports retail sector is attracted to malls. For local and foreign, new and existing investors alike, it can be suggested that in Turkey – especially in Istanbul – they should channel their investments into malls.
Açıklama
Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2017
Theses (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2017
Anahtar kelimeler
Mağaza yerleşimi, Mağaza yerleşim planlaması, Store location, Store location planning
Alıntı