Turizm İşlevinin Kentsel Gelişime Etkileri Konusunda Bir Araştırma-örnekleme Antalya

Ergenekon, Laçin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bir yörede turistik gelişimin sağlanması ve hız kazanması o yörenin sahip olduğu turistik çekiciliklerle çok yakından ilgilidir. Turistik çekicilikler ise, yöredeki sadece doğal güzellikler, manzara, topografik durum, iklim şartlan v.b. doğal çevre verileri değil, tarihsel-kültürel çevre, sosyo-ekonomik çevre, tesis ve yatak kapasitesi, ulaşım kolaylığı ve altyapı v.b. yapılaşmış çevreye de bağlıdır. Turistik talep, bütün bu çevre öğelerinin özelliklerine göre oluştuğundan, turistik gelişimin sağlanması için koruma-kullanma dengesi gözönüne alınarak etkili bir planlama yapılması gerekmektedir Aksi takdirde turizm, kendini oluşturan kaynaklan yok ediyor demetir. Bu kapsam doğrultusunda araştırma alanı olarak, konaklama tesis kapasitesinin en yüksek olduğu Akdeniz Bölgesi ve yine bölge içinde yoğun bir merkez olan Antalya örneklemi alınmıştır. Yapılan gözlemler, yatırımların ve planlama çalışmalarının incelenmesi ve anket soruşturması sonucunda ortaya çıkan bulgular ile sonuç bölümünde genel bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır.
As a whole, tourism is composed of activities and relationships arising from people's travels to place other than where they reside, work and meet their usual needs and their accommodation at such places by demanding certain products and services provided and rendered by tourism companies in general. Public interest in the Mediterranean Region, including Turkey, expands day after day thanks to these and climatic conditions. Turkish tourism began to develop rapidly especially in the recent years. However, it becomes harder and harder to protect natural balance in the shores and to preserve natural and cultural entities for the next generations. This study aims to help determining the relationships and interactions between tourism function and city planning, asserting that the letter are closely related with each other. Tourism varies in accordance with the relevant purposes. * Classification of Tourism Types in terms of Activities * Classification of Tourism Types in terms of Dominant Factors * Classification of Tourism Types in terms of Accommodation Facilities * Classification of Tourism Types in terms of Financial Contents Accommodation facilities provide temporary accommodation for tourists, and rank as the most important part of tourism activities. They should render catering services too. The most dominant type of accommodation facilities is hotels. Location of an accommodation facility is selected by taking the population's settlement and distribution conditions into consideration. Closeness to cities is a very important factor affecting the selection of an accommodation facility's location. Cities complement accommodation facilities in terms of various points. They especially increase the occupation rate and efficiency of lower capacity accommodation facilities Tourism movements enable people to enjoy such advantages as seeing different places, resting and traveling around, and also create certain effects. XII Economic Aspect of Tourism When the number of incoming tourists increases, the economic function of tourism will be emphasized. * Impact of Tourism on National Income * Impact of Tourism on Balance of Payments * Impact of Tourism on Employment * Impact of Tourism on Regional Development Social and Cultural Aspects of Tourism Whether within the domestic or international scale, tourism movements help people to symphatize with and befriend each other. Traveling enables people to get to know different nations tradition, to learn about their life styles. Travelers introduce their own cultures on one hand, and are influenced from the culture of the region or country they visit. So that a cultural interaction occurs between nations. Relationship Between Tourism and Environment Tourism activities have various impacts on the physical environment. Such impacts may be negative to damage the natural and historical structure, or may be positive to leas authorities to make serious measures for recovering or restoring the said structures. An environment protected in a successful manner in the international level forms the most important tourism resource of all countries. Leading tourism operators which direct tourism activities in the world exploit tourism centers for a certain time, then drop them from their catalogues on the grounds that their physical environment have been polluted. Therefore, it will be necessary to develop and apply plans providing a protection-exploitation balance for areas intended for tourism in order to enable them to render tourism services for a long time. Tourism is a multiplex sector where other sectors are within each other. It is very difficult to draw the line separating it from other sectors, to tell where it begins or where it ends. The basic reason of this difficulty is the fact that tourism is a by product of development. Productional, consumption and technologic developments achieved in the modern times caused the service sector to expand. In turn, this expansions had an impact on tourism industry which comprised a substantial part other service sector. Tourism industry consists of the following basic sections: a. Transportation sub-sector; b. Travel organizators; c. Accommodation and gastronomic facilities. XIII Tourism industry is a protective, stimulating and leading sector acting as an umbrella for such diversified services and activities as non-profit tourism organizations, marketing, accommodation, transportation, catering, retail sales etc. Planing means to determine what business activities and methods can be applied in the future, and to select the most suitable one for a company's scope and purposes, in other words, it means to select one of the various choices. Tourism planing means to determine optimum targets, resources which can be used to reach these targets, measures to be taken for realizing the purposes of the tourism sector, and to make decision for establishing a realistic harmony between that country's targets-resources measures in accordance with the domestic political and economic system, depending on a global analysis. Tourism planning covers all activities needed to submit all accommodation and transportation services, other infrastructures, promotions and training as a whole to customers. Main purpose of the tourism planing is to prevent tourism from being affected from negative physical, human, marketing, organizational and other factors, and to increase its positive effects. Tourism planing requires a wide-scale planning process. In this process, socio economic decisions should be reduced to the spatial level for reaching the targets. One of the most powerful devices used for this purpose is physical planning. Physical planning may be defined as follows for tourism: Planing where, how many of and how should be existing and future tourism activities and infra-structure investments be placed within the physical environment, arranging the relationship between the tourism sector and land utilization. Purposes of the physical tourism planning may be summarized as follows: Preventing the tourism activities from damaging the environment protecting the environment against factors which can have a negative impact on the utilization of tourism resources and which can decrease tourist capacity, and enabling people to make use of the said resources in the best manner for a long time. Stages of the physical planning may be grouped under the following 6 heading: International Planning, National Planning, Regional Planning, Local Planning, Sectorial Planning and Sectorial Application Programs. The Five Years Development Plans applied so far (1963 to 1994) contained certain general targets and principals for tourism, which are summarized as follows : Ministry of Tourism focuses on the following tourism targets for the near future: Fastening the development of tourism in terms of both the season and geographical distribution; taking ever-changing demands of foreign customers into consideration; procuring the development a competitions-based tourism economy; increasing the quality level of tourism with the economic, social and cultural environment. XIV Utilization and protection of resources is never especially compatible with tourism activities, but one should do his best to make them compatible as far as possible. When a country opens to tourism, especially foreign tourism, its authorities should consider not only its positive contributions to the national economy, but also its potential damages in its natural and cultural entities, so that the environmental protection measures should be developed as from the first stage of planning. It is observed that our society do not pay sufficient attention to the long-term public benefits of the environment protection, and tend to prefer the short-term economic benefits and advantages of tourism during the general changing and development process. People find short-term benefits and interests more important than the protection of cultural and natural entities. However, it is impossible to replace damaged cultural or natural entities with new ones. The main principle of tourism should be to prepare a green and blue country where the cultural and natural entities are protected. When one look up the distribution of the touristic boating facilities with Operational License in Turkey, one can see that the most of the facilities are located in the Mediterranean Region. The touristic bed capacity specially in Antalya went up very steeply after 1989 as the enticement that are granted to tourism enterprises those who would like to invest in tourism and some of the infrastructure that are realized by the public investments. There is also a very well development of congress tourism in Antalya recently. The main reason of that is the appropriate climate and alluring site and environment of Antalya. Specially the hotels that have large meeting halls become the facilities where seminars, symposium, panels, and meetings etc. are held. If you compare, Antalya becomes the third after Istanbul and Ankara in this field. The hypothesis in this research is that the tourism in the Mediterranean region depends on the relations and effects of the socio-economic environment and constructed environment, not only environment data by looking into the other areas of our country. Therefore, the information that is gathered in order to prove the said hypothesis has been obtained by questionnaires from the touristic facilities and the people living around that areas. Priority has been given to Five-star hotel and 1st Class holiday villages, which specially are preferred by the foreigners. This research focuses on the assumption that the difference of the Mediterranean region from the other regions of Turkey in terms of tourism stems from not only its natural environment data, but also its relationships with socio economic medium and structured environment, and the effects of the said relationships. Therefore, data to be used to prove this assumption were collected from various local accommodation facilities and through public surveys with the inhabitants. XV Because of their popularity for foreign tourists, 5-star hotels and first class holiday resorts were given priority for data collection purposes. Total 150 public surveys were taken with; 1. Turkish and foreign customers of the hotels and holiday resorts, 2. Managers of the 5-star hotels and first class holiday resorts favored by Turkish and foreign customers in general; 3. People working or living around such accommodation facilities or holiday resorts and in downtown; but 142 of the said surveys were evaluated. As an method experiment, the public surveys were taken in terms of their content rather than their numeric data, through face-to-face discussions in summer, the best season for tourism activities. The first group of public surveys were taken with Turkish and foreign customers of the hotels and holiday resorts, and having estimated that there were 400 customers in average, 10% was considered to be the survey target, so that the public survey were taken with 40 Turkish and 40 foreign tourists, total 80 people. The public survey were taken at facilities and resorts favored by customers, with certain ones selected randomly to learn why they chose Antalya and that particular facility or resort in question, and their thoughts about the relationships between the facility or resort and the city. The second group of survey were taken with the directors of the hotels and holiday resorts, having estimated that there were 29 5-star hotels and 35 holiday resorts in and off Antalya, 1/3 of them were considered to be the survey target, so that 10 hotels and 12 holiday resorts were selected. Four of the hotels are located downtown, and the remaining six of them were on the beach, resembling holiday resorts in fact. Since most of the 5-star hotels and first class holiday resorts were located in Kemer, Side and Manavgat, they were given priority, and Alanya was not taken into consideration on the grounds that it was outside the influence of the city of Antalya in terms of tourism and was a different holiday area by itself.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Antalya; Kentsel gelişme; Turizm, Antalya ;Urban development ;Tourism