Ekip planlama

Ayan, Elif
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Birinci bölüm ekip planlama problemine giriş niteliğindedir. İkinci bölümde ulaşımın tanımı yapılmakta ve ulaşım sistemleri incelenmektedi r. Bolum 3 ' de şebeke analizi Üzerinde durulmakta ve konu ile ilgili çeşitli uygulama yaklaşımları açıklanmak tadır. Bölüm 4'te ekip planlama Üzerine yapılan ve çeşitli havayolu şirketlerinde denenen bazı çalışmalar ile bunların sonuçlarına yer verilmektedir. Böl Um 5 ise araştırma literatüründe i kep planlama problemi formülasyonunda etkili olan, kümelere ayırma ve küme kapsama problemleri incelenmektedir. Böl Um 6, ekip planlama sisteminin işleyişi ve bir uygulama başlığı altında incelenmektedir. Ekip planlama prosesinin safhaları olan oluşturma ve ekip atama problemleri detaylandırılmakta ve problemin eşleme oluşturma safhası ile ilgili olarak bir model geliştirilmektedir. Modelin çözümü sıfır bir tamsayılı programlama ile ger çekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar incelendiğinde optimuma ulaşıldığı görülmektedir. Son bölüm tüm yapılan çalışma için bir sonuç bölümüdür.
Transportation is the movement of people and goods for a specific benefit in a convenient and economical manner. As in this definition, it has two main compo nents the movement and the convenience and economy of this movement. Without any movement of people and goods, one cannot think of an economy based on division of I abour. Level of the transport services in a country is an important indicator of the development. Some important effects of transportation on the economical development process are : a) First, it works as a bridge between the manufac turing sectors and the consumers. As the majority of manufacturers and consumers are in, respectively, rural and urban regions, transportation spreads the monetary economy over rural regions and thus, creates a consider able rise in the agricultural productivity. b) Secondly, since the developments in the transport system lower its costs, internal economies will have been established for the sectors making use of this sector. These developments will also give a fluency to the pro duct i on factors. XI I Transport systems have to be safe, economic, com fortable and their energy consumption and environmental damage low. We can examine the transport systems in five groups a) Highway transport, b) Railway transport, c) Maritime transport, d) Air trans port, e) Pipeline transport. Highway transport system is available for the mass and long-distance transports. Since it is convenient for every land, the chance of creating a transport network with this system is almost unlimited. But, in this system, energy consumption is high. Railway transport is one the most convenient systems for the transportation of big volumes at long distances (200 km and longer). Since it is dependent on rails and can not be effected by the climatic conditions, the security and comfort is higher. In this system, the chance of creating a wide transport network is limited. Maritime transport is available for the transporta tion of goods, especially big amounts and volumes, at long distances. However, it is not effective in passanger transport, with the exception of city tours and touristic activities. Since the speed, and thus the energy con sumption, is low in this transport system, it is cheap. Air transport is safe and comfortable, and has the characteristics of mass transport, high speed and making wide transport networks under certain conditions. This XI I I transport system is safer than the others with respect to accidents and risk as well. Pipeline transport is not affected by weather condi tions. But it requires big investments. It offers slow but safe transport. In this system, the transport capa city is determined by the pipe diameter. This thesis consists of seven chapters. Detailed explanations on transport systems are given in Chapter 2. Network analysis is discussed in Chapter 3. Networks consist of the nodes showing the various activities and the arcs joining these nodes. Networks are evaluated with respect to flow types of arcs. The path between an (i) and a (j) node in a network is the array of the arcs joining these nodes. When the path is along the flow, it is called Route. Tour is joining of a path from a node to the same node. In the network analysis method, first, the works forming the project, then the relations of them with the others and the time of each is found out, and then the arrow diagrams are drawn. When making connections between the activities in a network, three questions are asked : a) Which activities must be completed before this starts ? b) Which activities can be run in parallel to this ? c) Which activities can not be started before this starts ? After all these three questions are answered, networks are formed in detail. XIV Network analysis transport systems are carried out in the areas like the plans and control of the project research and development studies. Below the application approaches of the network analysis to various problems are given. The Shortest Path Problem is to determine the shor test path, by using the given arcs in a network, from a certain node to another. This is an important application of the Operational Research. Minimal Spanning Problem is the distribution of all the nodes, and arcs joining them, so that the total amount of the arcs is minimum. Maximum Flow Problem is the calculation of the maximum flow passing through the carrier nodes in a given ne twor k. Travelling Salesman Problem is the formation of the optimal arrangement of the places a salesman has to visit every day. The salesman will travel so that the total path, the total cost of the travel or the travel period will be mini mum. The main subject of this thesis is the Airline Crew Scheduling. There are many studies performed on this subject in the literature. In Chapter 4, the Airline Crew Scheduling studJes, tested on the various airline companies such as United Airlines, Pacific Southwest Airways, Flying Tiger, and their results are given. XV Set Partitioning and Set Covering Problems are the two effective methods in the formation of the Airline Crew Scheduling Problem in the research literature. Set Covering Problem is a Zero-one Integer Programm ing. The formation of this problem is Minimize ex Subject to Ex > e and xj ? 0 or 1 (j ? 1 n) where E « (eıj) is an m by n matrix whose eij inputs are 0 or 1 ; c » (cij) (j - 1 » »") is a cost row with positive components; x = (xj) (j - 1, n) is a vector of zero-one variables and e is an m vector of 1's. If Ex n e constraint is replaced with the equality of Ex -e, the Integer Programming is considered as a Set Partition ing Problem. Detailed informations on Set Partitioning and Set Covering Problems are given in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, operation of Airline Crew Scheduling is described and also an application is given. Airline Crew Scheduling process has two stages the pairing construction stage and the crew assignment stage. Pairing construction is based on the flight schedule. While preparing a Summer /W i n ter f I i ght schedu I e, before the beginning of a term, the offers related to that term are available from the sales managements and the aircraft maintenance program from the maintenance planning unit. According to those offers and maintenance program, a schedule is prepared roughly. Then by compar ing this schedule with the potential of the passengers in the previous schedule, it is evaluated as necessary. If XVI this schedule is adequate for also the crew and the aircraft, it becomes definite. Flight schedules consist of flight legs that indicate the path of each aircraft. In schedules, time is taken in GMT. In the pairing construction stage, by considering the flight legs in the schedule and the regulations of the related airline company as restrictive factors, they are combined to construct the duty periods and then the pairings. When constructing pairings, mi n imi zat ion of the number of the crew, minimization of the costs or the construction of the flight duties with the flight periods can be selected as the optimization criteria. Each flight duty starts from the homebase and ends on the same base. After pairing construction, if there are half pairings among the constructed ones, the convenient dedhead leg is added. Dedhead legs are the ones that are added to help the crew to arrive the related airport or to return to homebase, and that are on which the crew fly as passengers. In the crew assignment stage, flight crew, construct the pairings at the pairing construction stage, is assigned. In the crew assignment stage, monthly programs are made by assigning the flight crew, in a certain quality and quantity, to pairings in the fleet base and according to the duty type. XVI I Daily programming stage is available, as well as the monthly programming. Also the instructions of the related airline company are taken into account when assigning a crew. In this study, an application on the pairing cons truction stage of the Airline Crew Scheduling process is presented. A model is constructed by aiming the maximization of the flight periods in the flight duty period. The solu tion of the model is reached by the Zero-one Integer Programming, one of the techniques in the Operational Research. When you examine the results of the solution, you'll see that the optimum results are reached. The last chapter is the resultant chapter of the whole study.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Ulaşım, Ekip planlama, Ulaşım sistemleri, Şebeke analizi, Transportation, Team planning, Transportation systems, Network analysis