Kıbrıs-lefkoşa'da, Selimiye Bölgesin'nde, Kentsel Mimari Öğeleri Oluşumunda, Tarihsel Ve Coğrafi Etmenler

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Tarih
1996
Yazarlar
Gürdallı, Huriye
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bir veri olarak tarihin bilincinde olmak ve dünyada var olmanın, geçmiş, bugün, gelecek arasındaki bir senaryodan ibaret olduğunu anlamak, var olanı açıkladığı gibi, bugünkü hızlı değişim ortamında, gelecek olanı, bilinmeyeni de hayal etme imkanı verir. Tarihi yorum, mimari biçimi sosyal analizin önemli bir parçası olarak görür. Ancak bu biçimi, onu oluşturan sebeplerle birlikte ele alır. Bu anlam arayışında, ideolojinin tarihi rolü de gözardı edilmemelidir. Devam eden sosyal ve politik uygulamalarla ilişkisi gözönüne alındığında, ideolojik hareketler, planlama kararlarını, konut ve kent mekanı üretimini, kentsel büyümeyi, yerel kaynakların kullanım kararlarını etkilemektedir. Kıbrıs'ın bugünkü politik ve ekonomik koşullarından dolayı mimari geleceği için bir varsayımda bulunmak, genellemeler yapmak zordur. Bu tezde, amaç, genelde Kıbrıs ve özelde Lefkoşa Selimiye Bölgesi'ndeki mimari öğelerin oluşmasında, tarih ve coğrafi etmenleri ortaya koymaktır. İlk bölümde, tezin amacı, kapsamı ve konuyu ele alış yöntemi ortaya konmuştur. İkinci bölümde, adanın ve Lefkoşa'nın kimliğinde etkin Akdeniz kültürünün, bugüne gelen ortaklık ve farklılıklarının anlamı irdelenmiştir. Sosyal ve mekansal analiz, hem, coğrafi sınırları içinde hem de, kendi tarihsel gelişim ilişkileriyle yorumlanmaya çalışılmıştır. Adanın boyutu, morfoloji, yerleşilebilirlik, etnik farklılık, iç-kıyı, kırsal-kentsel yerleşim, geçim bakımından Kıbrıs genelindeki irdelemeye imkan vermiştir. Üçüncü bölüm, adanın hem ortak coğrafyadaki diğer mekanlarla mukayesesine, hem de ada genelindeki saptamanın sonuçlarına yer vermektedir. Dördüncü bölümde, Lefkoşa, kent ölçeğinde ele alınarak, kentin değişimi, tarihi Suriçi kent, 20. yüzyıl başındaki ve bugünkü gelişimi sorgulanmıştır. Değişen toplumsal yapıya rağmen, metamorfoza uğrayan ama kaybolmayan örüntülerin, kent bütününe, hatta ada bütününe yansıması irdelenmiştir. Bu analizin ışığında, değişmeye hazır bir varlığın olası politik kararlara göre dinamiği kurgulanmaktadır. Beşinci bölümde, kentin tarihsel yorumunu yapabilmek, mimari mekanı okuyabilmek için, tarihi Surlariçi Lefkoşa'nın Selimiye Bölgesi daha detaylı olarak analiz edilerek biçimin gerisindeki anlama ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Altıncı bölüm, yapılan analizlerin sonuçlarının değerlendirilerek, verilerin yorumlandığı sonuç bölümüdür.
Section I Within the context of this study, the effect of historical and geographical factors in the formation of urban elements at Cyprus - Nicosia, Selimiye Quarter has been analysed. The study has been carried out in different scales; Cyprus as a whole, then Nicosia, as an inland capital of the island and the Selimiye Quarter, as the oldest region of the Walled City. As Cyprus is a Mediterranean island, the formation of place is studied in comparison with the similarities and differences of other Mediterranean countries. To accept history as an important data, helps our understanding of life as a scenario, a bridge, between past and future. The change of life and place is an inevitable element for the continuation of communities. When this change is very rapid, there is a problem of not keeping cultural values, and many sociologists and theoriticians are working on this problem. At these studies, architecture isnot only seen as a cultural or typological data, but also as an important part of social system. Architecture within this context, has the dialect of time, place and social being. 'Place', is also a very important factor in the formation of societies. Geography gives land, its character, its 'genius loci'. The comments on history, relate the political and economical events and institutions as the mediators of urban formation. Studying ideology (thoughts, values, perception of images) as a historical element, directs the analysis to find out the meaning behind the architectural form and daily life, behaviors, patterns play an important role in the ideological critics. The political and economical conditions of Cyprus, make it hard to generalize and make assumptions about its urban and architectural future. In the last years, there has been a demand for the continuation of social and cultural values. This continuation, however, does not deny the need of change. The analysis of typological and morphological elements with the concept of the meaning behind the form, helps our understanding of the formation of a setting, and also gives chance to imagine for the future. Change is not only a physical fact but its effects can be seen in social and cultural dimensions too. The 'meanings' in physical environment and architecture shows the process of social life. Xll Urban architecture, assumes a more general 'language' and reflects the complex meaning system of architecture. Sembolisation and transposition are the two factors of urban architecture. The gathering of these meanings gives a place its 'genius'. The analysis of a setting or an urban form, enables us to unite the social, etnological and historical interpretations. In this thesis, historical background, behavioral patterns and the build-up of cultural and architectural values of Nicosia - Selimiye Quarter has been studied within this context. As Cyprus is a small island, the decisions for other cities, effect Nicosia too. So, the island is seen as a whole system. The destiny of the island is closely related with its location in the East Mediterranean. The typological and historical data of Nicosia - Selimiye Quarter analysis has been evaluated in comparison with the other Mediterranean countries and islands. If, at the end of this evaluation, there are similar behavioral, environmental and architectural patterns, this brings us to the conclusion that there can be similar solutions for the problems of future designs. In all these discussions and interpretations, 'place' and 'time' are the two dimensions taken into consideration. 'Place' has been studied from general (Mediterranean) to a specific place (Selimiye Quarter) and time from past to the future. In Selimiye section, time is also considered in a behavioral level. Section II Mediterranean World has been a meeting place for the people, ships, thoughts, religions and the art of living for centuries. It keeps many elements opposing each other and it is this factor that gives its character; everything unites to form an original whole. Mediterranean World is a living system which reflects the history of settings, their duration, their movements and repetitions. The common factors of Mediterranean: Its land, climate, sea, trade, civilisations, place, city, family, migration and heritage has been studied with examples. This section of the study, has been prepared by the quotations from the books of Fernand Braudel about Mediterranean World as he analyses not only the daily lives of people, the continuation of settings and the whole environment but the ones which is different from others. He is a historian who evaluates historical events within the frame of the geographical context. At the end of this section, the common visual patterns are given from different Mediterranean countries. Xlll Section III This section gives information in a general perspective on Cyprus; its location, climate, different geographical morphological regions and coastal - inland, rural - urban settings, giving emphasis to the scale of the island. As Cyprus is located on a seismic area, a number of earthquakes have damaged its settings throughout its history. The dominant dry and hot climate during nine or ten months of the year and the low annual rainfall, especially in the lowland areas, have been determining the factors for its urban and architectural characteristics. The climatic conditions, of course effected the use of materials for constructing, proportions of elements and their becoming together for environmental quality. The arceological history of Cyprus, gives information about the different influences, settlements and movements, through the island of the neighbouring empires, kingdoms or forces controlling the territory and it is seen as the symbol of power between Christians and Muslims. Important settlements, have been dated back to the 6th millenium B.C. Its strategic position in the East Mediterranean has meant that the island had different rulers over centuries. The Phonicians, Achaeans, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines, Lusignans, Venetians and Turks have all their turn. Each has left traces in architectural environment. However, the prosperity of these periods was seen mostly in urban areas, the rural settlements and the daily life of the Cypriots were broken off from the settlements and lives of the nobles. the settlements throughout centuries have gone through a slow and natural process; formalized according mostly to the agricultural living, defense, war, and climatic conditions. The characteristics of Cyprus house have been showing similarities and variations due to the different regions of the island although it is small in scale. It is questioned if the historical periods of the settings are showing some common factors within chronological development of the islanditself and with the other Mediterranean countries.. Section IV Nicosia is analysed within the historical progress of the island. Its character as city, as an inland capital and its relation with other cities has been studied with a chronological development. It is the only divided capital city; capital of two adminstrations. Nicosia today, accounts about half of the urban population. The old city of Nicosia, concentrates most of the buildings of cultural, historic and archeological value in Cyprus from the medieval period onward. XIV The image of the city is closely related with its complex historical events. The architectural heritage existing in the island is a unique example of mixed characters as a contribution of the monuments of Lusignan, Venetian, Ottoman times, The Ottoman and Greek houses and the British government houses. Climate has a direct role on the city's image too. Heat, dusty winds, drought and the overflow of Pedhios River affected the foundation of streets, gardens, building heights, use of water, proportion of windows. The walls around the old city, constructed by Venetians for protection against the Turks, determines the form of today's Walled City. The old maps of the city confirm that the main urban structure was established between 1571 and 1878 and an important densification of buildings took place in the Walled city until the first period of the British adminstration. The beginning of the city's expansion outside the walls was consequently determined by the new government offices of British officials and also by the impact of the new motorways. In this section, the factors which effected the city form and pattern, the reflection of etnicity on structural environment been argued. It covers the traditional settlement form and privacy at housing group level, social interaction, house typology in a single house unit, construction systems and the socio-economic conditions of the inhabitants. Nicosia's development is seen in three stages. The Walled City -the core -, the 20. century quarters outside the walls and the modern city of today. The changes in the city form, strret patterns, building forms have been exemplified. It is questioned whether there are common patterns and life styles in spite of the changing structure of the community. The varying elements are thought as the determinants of the profile of a dynamic city. Section V. The interacting elements giving the region its form and function showed the importance of the region within the city. It is the most historical and prestigious region where the Gothic Hagia sophia (Selimiye Cami) takes place. Sultan Mahmud Library and other buildings, khans, hamams, from Ottoman Period and artistic houses are in that region too. Selimiye, with its bazaar, schools, cemetaries, fountains, orchards had the typical appearence of a 'Turkish Mahalle'. The houses are seperated from the street by the courtyard walls and the daily lives were mostly spent behind these walls but the interaction of Turkish and Greek Cypriots, this pattern had changed and a street life became an important character of a Cypriot's life style, the interaction of two ethnic groups had changed socio-cultural and demographic aspects too. The wars, invasions, immigrants and the seperation of the division of the city were the important factors that the character of the city and gave its 'genius loci'. XV Every civilisation, during its historical evolution, has its own way of considering and using the territory as well as of building its settlements. What we can read today through the resulting physchonomy is the fusion of these complex stratifications; this happens to the urban form, to the urban tissue and to the building typology,the last scale of elements composing a settlement. The study on Selimiye urban tissue has allowed the identification of four building types. 1. Original Courtyard House Type 2. Minimal Courtyard House Type 3. Planned Serial House type 4. New Courtyard House Type These grouping, also shows the social structure of the city. This section gives the morphology and typology of the components of the city. Its form, has been carried out consistently in a wide range of scale; the scale of the region, the scale of the neighbourhood, scale of the street and the scale of an individual house. In forming the street pattern, the needs for psycho-social environment and physical environment overlap so well. The street pattern, when concerned with privacy, have a form that gets narrower from general to private. Today, it is a place where in day time there is a crowd fulfilling its streets but at nights it is a desserted place. There is a rapid change both in spatial and behavioral patterns. The common criteria of Braudel's Mediterranean World argued within the island, is questioned in Nicosia, although it is an inland city. As, Selimiye Quarter has the main characteristics of a city itself, it can be questioned within Selimiye. Section VI In this section the overall historical development of the city is evaluated within the island and the Mediterranean scale. This study does not intend to convert the analytic datas to design guide-lines directly. It is an attemt to enrich our understanding of the city. Nicosia as a whole and the Selimiye Quarter is thought as a document, visual presentation of the morphological growth of the city.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Coğrafi özellikler, Kıbrıs-Lefkoşa-Selimiye, Tarihsel gelişim, Geographical properties ; Kıbrıs-Lefkoşa-Selimiye, Historical geography, Historical development
Alıntı