Hicaz makamının Türk halk müziğindeki yeri

Kıvılcım, Aslı
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Hicaz makamının Türk halk müziğindeki yeri" konulu bu çalışma, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitûsü'nde, Güzel Sanatlar Anasanat Dalı Musiki Sanat Dalı, Türk Halk Müziği Alanı'na Yüksek Lisans Tezi olarak hazırlanmıştır. Bu çalışma üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. îlk bölümde hicaz makamı tanıtılmış, İkinci bölümde bu makamın garip dizisiyle olan münasebetleri ve bu iki dizinin türk halk müziğindeki yeri incelenmiştir. Bu inceleme sırasında garip dizisinin halk müziğinde önemli biryere sahip olduğu belirtilmiş, ayrıca Türkiye'nin yedi bölgesinden ikişer türkü seçilmiş, bu türküler müzikal ve yapısal özellikleri dolayısıyla incelenmiştir. Bu inceleme sırasında, türkülerde kullanılan garip diziş, tüm özellikleriyle ele alınmıştır. Ekler bölümünde örneklenen her bir türkü, önce ilk bilgiler başlığı altında açıklanmıştır. Bu kısımda, türkünün hangi bölgeye ait olduğu, kimin derlediği gibi sorulara cevaplar verilmiştir. Daha sonra türküler yapısal ve müzikal olmak üzere iki ana biçimde incelenmiştir. Yapısal analizde, türkünün söz yapısıyla ilgili konular, müzikal analizde, müzik cümleleri belirtilmiştir. Müzikal analiz sırasında periyodlar A, cümleler a,b,c, cümlecikler x,y,z,a vs şeklinde gösterilerek ele alınmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda verilen örnek türküler, Türkiye'nin yedi bölgesinden (Orta Anadolu, Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu, Ege ve Marmara, iv Akdeniz ve Karadeniz Bölgeleri) alınan ikişer türküden oluşmaktadır. Müzikal analizde oluşan sonuçlar, ayrıca ekler bölümündeki notalar üzerinde gösterilmiştir. Çalışmada verilen örnekler; TRT Müzik Dairesi Yayınlan, İstanbul Radyosu T.H.M. Repertuan'ndan alman 14 türküden oluşmaktadır.
This study, which is in the topic, "Topic place of tune "Hicaz" in Turkish Folk music", has three sectious. In first section, tune "Hicaz" has been explaned, in second section, smilarities between this tune and "Garip" series, and the place of this two series in folk music have been researched. In this study, I poiuted out that, the "Garip" series has au important place th folk music, and I also stressed that the tune "Hicaz" series has to left its place to "Garip" series in the topic of folk music, aud the necessifty of researching of this subject. After these, two folk soungs of each regian of Turkey has been hold and these flok soungs structural and musical properties have been researched. Inthis study, the "Garip" series which is used in folk sougs has been hold with its all properties. In Sougn analysis that ve applied, first knowledges about the folk song that was hold, were given. I mean, knowledges like, "name of the song", "from which region", "its envirous", "who complied", "who wrote in notes" and "from whol that has been taken", were explained. After that folk song has been researched in two main ways. First, musical analysis, secondlystructural VI analysies have been made. In musical analysis, songs stop, strong partitious, rigging, obstructions in song, sound area that have been used aud, series that have been used, have been shown one by oue in the staff. Further more, series name that song is belonged to, the rouve of the series, the beat numbers of the song, time of soung, and mode up of this time, have been pointed out. And also, song's from analysis has beenmade.İn form analysis (it has ben explained with mode deatils in teh section topie) melodic passages in notes structure, phrasish, were fand in the base of phrase and period, after that short - big qualities, that have been made, were symbolized by keeping in view and groupish results were brought out. The phrasishes that has been fixed, were symboized with x,y,z,a o (S; 3^ W ' Q_P.Ka j S- s^: symbols,phrases were symbolized with letters like a,b,c periods were symbolized with capital letters like A,B,C... In this study, the smallest passages, that have meaufulness, were approached with phrasish logic, passages, that have been made by ttwo and more phrasishes, were approaded with period. By the help of this logic, we can write this formula: phrasish < phrase < period After this stduy, structural analysis of the sang has been given. Words and connection parts of the melody poetry structure in the song, rhyme order VII of the poet, versification model and its meterwere researched. Now, let's summarize, turne "Hicaz" its place in the folk music,relations with "garip" series and the place of "garip" series in the folk music, vuder the topic of the sections that coustitute the subject. THE TUNE "HİCAZ" - What is tune? The name of a series playing form in Turkish Music. Quartets and Quiutets, that make the base of Turkish Music, come together inmany ways and by the help of this they make the series. Sounds in these series, are used in certain rules and make "the Ture" by using these rules "The Tune" is a relationship of stop, half decision and hang decision. Being a tune for a series, there has to drive in these relationships. I mean series in dead, tune is alive. The Tune "Hicaz" Hicaz, is the second of the twelve tunes in Iranian Musie. Hicaz, is the eight basic tune in the Turkish Music (It's called "Hicazi" in Arabie) Hicaz-i Garib, is a term, as been used by some musicians at the beginnign of 20 th century, but today it is not used. Same composers called vm tune "Hümayun" which use a bemol between coma and remainder bemols for note B (T:) "Hicaz" is a name that is used for a tune name, and also for a family that is made of four tunes. The reason of calling a family of these four tunes is that these forutunes are so similar. There ase "Hicaz quartet" at the low side of these two tunes, and there are "Hicaz Quintet" at the other two's. Changing places of these tunes are tastes over its ctrongs and strong. These four tastes always make transition with each other. THE TUNES OF "HÎCAZ" FAMILY Hicaz family is made up of fourtunes - The Tune "Hümayun" - The tune "Hicaz" - The tune "Uzzal" - The tune "Hicaz with Zirgüle" IX There ise a series, which is used in all these tunes in Hicaz family, that while it goes up with up and down attraction, we use # F (evç), while it goes down we use U F (Iranian ) fret. Also there is an associate expanding of these tunes which make this family. "Uşşak quartet" is shown at "dügaüh" after playing on the hicaz faste which is on the stop (decission) fret, with playing "dik kürdi" {Jy si) and "nün hicaz" ( ^do) frets. After that, "Rast Quintet" is made by expanding this "uşşak quartef ou the "yegah" fret, like the expanding of the tune "Uşşak) "The place of Hicaz Tune in Turkish Folk Music." If we take care of to the "Garip" word in the compound ward "Hicaz-i Garip" in the compound word "Hicaz-ı Garip" (poor Hicaz), which we were comfronted with, in the expalantions of "Hicaz" word at the beginning of the section, it is a name of a series in Turkish Folk Music, and there is no difference with Average Hicaz Series (which is in Turkish Music) by the meaning of the series. In this study, two folk soungs of each regious of Turkey have been researched. Will be better to call "garip series", not Hicaz Tune Series" while x we inspecting the songs in these forms which are belonged to Turkish Folk Music. Because of this, it's lighter to explain the place and importance of the "Garip Series" in Turkish Folk music after we explain the Hicaz Tune Series. Garip Series; Garip, means done, alien, stronger and poor. Also there has been said that it's earning from the name of Aşık Garip who is a traveller. (Aşık Garip isa poet who travelled all Anatolia, to show the god's way by singing). It also means along, vuposssed, homeless, no heart breaker, friendly, forgiven, foleraut. And it is geting more meaningful when we call it with a poet who is homeless,traveller, helpful, friendly, Garip as we told before - is a series that is used in Turkish folk Musik. Garip series which takes the kB#C faults in its Musical form usually tells about lonelyness, abroad and poorness like its meaning, is usage (türkü, uzun hava etc.) Specialities of Garip Series; Although they are used in Garip series, # C and V B frets - which are in the Hicaz Tune Series -, in same garip melodies, like # C is used 1 coma higher or lower, y B frets - which are in the Hicaz Tune Series - in, same garip melodies, like # C is used 1 coma higher or lower, y B fret can be used 1 coma loqer or higher, sometimes. XI For example, in East anatolia Regrian's melodies, especially in Halays musicians plays C, öne coma higher, and B öne coma lower. This is regional speciality. There are many examples like this in Southeast Anatolia Region's melodies. İn these folk soungs - which are in this series you can feel "faiutness, blues, pain and groan" because of usage of B and C notes fault Because of this "Garip" songs are called Garip hava, yanık hava, sızlatmak hava" (They mean nearly "blues") Associate Series of Garip Series andHicaz Tüne We have told before that Garip Series is a like with Hicaz family's associate series which is in Turkish Music. B fret, which is in the associate Hicaz series that is used in Turkish music, is higher than V B fret which is used in garip series. Essentially this fret while it is playing in the Turkish Music's fret susceptibility, makes variations as high ör low. While we study about the same subject we saw that insome soungs y B fret change into V B. And it shows that, when we talk about coma sounds, which is used in Turkish music anda changable, y B fret, that is induded in garip series of folk music, is seen in this situation. XII We have faced with so many researching areas about comparison of these two series. Firstly Hicaz Tune is a Turkish Music's tune, and it is made up of more than one tune series under this name. However Garip series have only one series formation. But, when we hold and research the associate form of Hicz Tune Series, and after we compare with garip series, we are faced with almost the same series. It will be wrong to talk about the tunish sepicialities of Hicaz Tune. Because, we can't call "garip series" like "garip tune", and cancepts like - ayak, tune, series - which are in folk music, have to be researched more detailed. We only try to compra these two series diagramatic, without talking about this subject. As a matter of fact, it's not necessory to study ou Hicaz Tune family in these studied songs. There is ouly are necessity that we have to stressed the relation ships between "Garip" and "Hicaz Tune Family". Because of this, it's better to be satisfied by saying that hicaz and garip which have associate series - have to use same faults, same strong decision, hang decision frets, same playing properties. xra Garip series place and importance in Turkish folk music is become by the products which have been shaped by Turkish, sense, philosopty, living way and historical events. Turkish Folk Music tell about all natural and social events.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Halk müziği, Hicaz, Makamlar, Türk halk müziği, Folk mucisc, Turkish folk music, Hedjaz, Modes