Esneklik Amaçlı Toplu Konut Planlama Yaklaşımlarının İrdelenmesi Ve Solfege Sisteminin İşlevsel Performansının Değerlendirilmesi

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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu tez çalışması, esneklik amaçlı toplu konut planlama yaklaşımlarının irdelenmesini ve Solfege Sisteminin işlevsel performansının değerlendirilmesini amaçlamaktadır. Solfege Sistemi bağlamında kolon-kiriş- iskelet yapım sistemlerinin boyutsal, esneklik ve davranışsal gereksinmeler açısından değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır. Bu yapım yönteminin bina üretiminde sağladığı olanakların ve özelliklerinden kaynaklanan kısıtlamaların ne olduğu ve sistemin bunlara ilişkin kendine özgü çözümleri saptanmıştır. Tez, giriş ve dört ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Sözkonusu bölümlerde aşağıdaki konular ele alınmıştır. Tezin 1. Bölümünde konuya giriş yapılmış, tezin amacı, kapsamı, önemi ve izlenen yol açıklanmıştır. 2. Bölümde, genel olarak sözkonusu problemin tanıtılması amaçlanmaktadır. Problemin tanıtılmasına, konut ve toplu konutun tanımları ve tarihsel süreç leri anlatılarak başlanmıştır. Daha sonra, kullanıcı gereksinmelerinin çeşitli kaynaklara göre tanımlamaları, sınıflandırılmaları ve zaman boyutu içerisin deki değişimleri, esneklik kavramının tanımı, sınıflandırılması ve esneklik a- maçlı tasarım yaklaşımları ile birlikte anlatılmıştır. Bu bölümün son kısmında ise toplu konut üretimi ve teknikleri irdelenmiştir. 3. Bölümde, toplu konut yapımında Solfege Sistemi ele alınmıştır. Sistemin temel özellikleri, yapısal özellikleri, geometrisi ve şantiye kurgusu irdelenmiştir. 4. Bölümde, örnek bir öneri projesi üzerinde Solfege Sisteminin boyutsal ve esneklik / değişebilirlik gereksinmeleri açısından, kullanıcı gereksinmelerinin yerine getiriliş özellikleri irdelenmiştir.
This thesis aims to bring out the main features of meeting the flexibility, vari ability and the dimensional requirements of users, in implementation of mass-housings produced by special construction system, " Solfege System". The possibilities that Solfege System secure to building production and the limitations arising from its pecularities and the solution of the system respecting to afore mentioned will be defined by the analysis made on the samples. As everybody knows, some of the industrialized building systems may bring out limitations to meet requirements of users which make up the starting point of the project or make different solutions necessary because of its structural build up. Accordingly, structural build up of the system should be discussed from the point of view of user requirements, exactly the flexibility and the dimensional ones. Not only the general pecularities of Solfege System are given but at the same time, the evaluations to be made according to these requirements should be realized in the project stage, where the architect is intensively influ-ential as the main source of decision. Thesis is consisting of four main sections. Section 1 This section is the introduction section. In it, the problem is presented and the actuality of this method in our country is described. Section 2 In this section, the thesis elements are defined. First, the definition of the house is given. Not only its physical meaning but its psychological meaning is given at the same time. An house is suitable for the users when it has the meaning of home. As it is in the world, the construction of dwellings has been incerased in recent years, in Turkey where there is a big demand for dwellings, due to rapid urbanization. XI The areas, seperated for the houses, are too small to build only the mass- housings. Because of this, the definition of the mass housings are given with their historical development. After then.user requirements have been defined according to various sources. Generally, these features are the ones that user expects and endouvers to get from a projected product. The answers of such questions as what must be the dimensional features, what factors define, etc. are given from the point of view of user comfort. User requirements are classified in two groups. A - Physical user requirements;. Available space requirements.. Physical environmental requirements. - Climatic requirements, - Light quality requirements, - Acoustic requirements, - Health requirements, - Security requirements. B - Psycho-social user requirements,. Confidential requirements,. Behavioural requirements,. Aesthetic requirements. Like everything, user requirements are changed and developed in time.They are affected by the developings in the families and in the community. An architect must satisfy his users by his flexible housing designs. The hosuing designs which are not flexible, make users uncomfotable in their whole life. Consequently, the houses are grown not only by physical oldness but by the relative oldness, too. When the house can not satisfy the users requirements, this means that they fall in relative oldness. Relative oldness can be hintered by flexible designs. By the help of the flexible designs, users can change their interior of the house. Because of this, the flexibility definition and its classification are given. Flexibility supports the architectural concepts which take into consideration user requirements in designinig the houses. XII After the definition of the flexibility, we meet the descriptions of mass housing technics, according to their historical development. These technics are;. Closed construction systems; They use ordering elements. They are special technics used by evident firms and they consist unflexible designs. For example, tunnel formwork method is a closed consruction system. The users can not change the interior of their house and the designers have no liberty in designing.. Meccano construction systems; They use meccano elements. Meccanos are special elements, produced by evident firms. They are unflexible systems like the closed construction systems. The users and the designers are too much limited.. Semi-open construction systems; They partially use catalogue elements. The structural skeleton of the buildings are built by semi-open system elements. Exactly, column-beam- floor (skeleton) systems are semi-open systems and they are more flexible.. Open construction systems; They use catalogue elements. The designers are not limited and the users have great independence in putting in order their house interior. Section 3 At the beginning of this section, the flexible design methods are described.These methods are classified in three groups.. Static flexibility method,. Continous flexibility method,. Enlarging flexibility method. As an example to continous flexibility methods, SAR Method is analized. The conventions and the pecularities are described by graphics and plans. Principals of Solfege System production are discussed by citing general information on description of the method and objectives of utilization. Solfege System is a column-beam-floor system. It is a semi-open mass housing construction system. Solfege System is just one of the 20 semi-open construction systems which were accepted by the French Government after the long life tests in 1979- 1980. XIII Solfege System has lots of technical peculiarities. They are;. The designer can choose the most conformable elements,. It is a flexible system,. The users can change interior of their houses. By using Solfege System, mass housings, collective and interval houses, office and administration buildings, halting places and social education buildings can be built. The maximum height, the system allows, is ground floor + 7 floors. With the distrubition of loads equally, rigitidy and endurance against earthquake is attained, in this system. There are eight main elements, using in the construction; - Column elements, - Beam elements, - Floor elements, - Shell elements, - Framework elements, - Dividing elements, - Equipments, - Windows and floors. The column, beam, floor and shell elements are produced in the factories in the conventions. So, the elements are connected without no problem. The other elements can be produced by traditional technics. For the dimensional coordination of the elements, two different grids are used. Structural and equipment grids. The structural grid is consisted of two axes, which meet each other, by right angles. One of them is modular axe and the other one is structural axe. The columns are settled down along the structural axe and there is no need to settle columns at all intersection points. Section 4 In this section, the flexibility and the dimensional user requirements in the Solfege System are estimated by an example mass housing project, designed in Solfege System. According to estimation reasons;. As exterior flexibility; the system is limited.. As interior flexibility, - There is independence between structural system and the interior of the house, so this brings great flexibility. XIV - The system can answer the probable changes which are linear, oscillating and helozonic changes. - Without WC, baths and kitchens, all the spaces can change their functions. Exactly, sofa can secure great flexibility. - The users can design their own house according to the equipment grid. - There is no need to be professional in changing the interior elements of the house.. As dimensional reasons; - The dimensional requirements, the users need to make their actions, are easily changeable according to the user needs.So there is no dimensional requirement problem. From the reasons, we have from Solfege System, we see that column-beam- floor ( skeleton ) construction systems have great flexibility, variability and dimensional pecularities.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Solfege sistemi, Toplu konutlar, Solfege system, Mass houses