Türkiye De Arazi Yönetimine Yönelik Mevzuat Analizi

thumbnail.default.placeholder
Tarih
2012-09-12
Yazarlar
İşiler, Mehmet
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Günümüzde toplumsal kıt bir kaynak olarak görülen arazinin sürdürülebilir kalkınma hedefleri doğrultusunda yönetilmesi zorunlu hale gelmiştir. Tüketilebilir ve sonlu bir kaynak olan arazinin yönetimi için etkin ve yararlı arazi politikalarına ihtiyaç vardır. Arazi politikalarının geliştirilmesi için arazi idare sistemleri tarafından sağlanan mülkiyet, değer ve arazi kullanım bilgilerine ihtiyaç vardır. Bir başka deyişle sağlıklı arazi bilgileri uygun arazi politikalarının gelişmesini sağlarken, iyi oluşturulan arazi poltikaları da etkin bir arazi yönetimi ve idaresini destekler. Arazi bireyler için zenginlik kaynağı olduğu gibi ülkeler için ekonomik önemi olan bir değer ve hatta toplumlar için sosyal ve politik hayatın önemli bir parçasıdır. Küresel akımların etkisi ile beraber, artan kentsel ve kırsal planlama ihtiyacı, çevrenin korunması ve yönetimindeki sorunlar, sürdürülebilir kalkınma yaklaşımı içerisinde arazinin yönetimini zorunlu hale getirmiştir. Etkin bir arazi yönetimi için sağlıklı arazi politikalarına ihtiyaç vardır. Sağlıklı arazi politikalarının geliştirilebilmesi ise ancak sağlıklı, güncel ve güvenilir arazi bilgisi ile mümkün olabilir. Arazi idare sistemleri ise arazi yönetimi sürecinde ihtiyaç duyulan sahiplik, değer ve kullanım bilgilerini üreten, saklayan, güncelleyen ve servis eden yapıdır. Arazi politikaları belirlenen ilkeler doğrultusunda oluşturulan yasal düzenlemeler ile uygulamaya aktarılır. Bir ülkenin arazi politikalarının etkinliği değerlendirirken mevcut yasal düzenlemelerin incelenmesi gerekir. Bu bağlamda, tez çalışmasında, arazi yönetimine dair kapsamlı bir mevzuat analizi yapılarak, ülkemizde arazi faaliyetlerini ilgilendiren mevcut yasal düzenlemeleri belirlenmiştir. Yasal düzenlemelerin tespitinde “kural koyucu” mevzuat göz önünde bulundurulmuştur. Daha sonra, tespit edilen yasal mevzuatların içerdiği arazi faaliyet türleri belirlenmiştir. Yasaların amaç ve kapsamlarına bakılarak birinci dereceden arazi yönetimi faaliyetlerini ilgilendiren yasalar tespit edilmiştir. Oluşturulan mevzuat analiz formlarından yararlanılarak, arazi yönetimine yönelik birinci derecede önem taşıyan yasalarda tanımlanan mekansal verinin kullanıldığı veya üretildiği işler tespit edilmiştir. Böylelikle belirlenen yasalar mekansal veri gereksinimi yönünden incelenmiştir. Araziye yönelik mevzuatlar incelendiğinde parçalı ve dağınık bir yapı ile karşılaşılmaktadır. Ayrıca arazi yönetimi süreci içinde gerekli olan mülkiyet, değer ve kullanım verilerinin sağlanması, güncellenmesi, kullanılması ve sunulması gibi konularla birlikte üretilen verinin standartı, niteliği, paylaşımı ile ilgili konularda yasal düzenlemeler bulunmamaktadır. Bu nedenle bütüncül ve katılımcı bir yaklaşımla bir “Arazi Kanunu” oluşturulmalı,araziye yönelik mevcut yasalar bu çerçevede yeniden ele alınmalı, eksikliği hissedilen konularda yasal düzenlemeler getirilmelidir.
Nowadays, land is accepted as a community scarce resource which has to be managed with the concept of sustainable development purposes. Efficient and effective land policies are required for management of consumed and limited land resources. The main requirement to develop land policies is qualified, reliable and up-to-date land information interested in land property, land value and land use provided by land administration systems. In other words, quality land information allows the better land policies and better land policies support efficient land management and administration. Land is the source of wealth for individuals and it has economical value for countries. Also, it has an vital effect on social and cultural life of community. Together with the effect of the global trends, the increasing needs of urban and rural planning, advances in information technology, environmental protection and management issues made it necessary to manage the land in a sustainable development approach. Land management is the process which includes management of land and natural resources in the light of sustainable development. The aim of sustainable development is to meet needs of today, without compromising future generation to meet. The established structure of land management system can be different between countries because of their social, cultural, economic and judicial property. Land management system should support sustainable development by taking into account of relations between economic, social and environmental functions. Humankind and land relationship has changed in time. Especially, after the World War II, needs of reconstruction and urban planning dramatically increased with the population explosion. In 1970’s, inadequate food production and scarcity of resources has become evident. Therefore, the importance of land management in rural areas have emerged. This historical process emphasizes that urban and rural planning must be considered together in the land management process. Today, the principles of land management development are determined in the light of technological advances under the leadership of international organization such as International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), Unedıt Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), European Union (EU) and The World Bank. Today, the traditional systems are required to transform to land administration systems. Cadastre and land registration, real estate valuation, mapping and land information management are the main function of land administration systems. The land administration system is responsible for providing necessary data which consist of land property, land value and land use in order to assist sustainable development. Cadastral systems have been designed to provide security of land tenure, in order to organize taxation and real estate valuation systems, and to build infrastruction for planning. At first, cadastral systems were used for taxation of agricultural land, which was the most important means of production. Afterwards, it was transformed into structure, which guarentees the ownership of land registry. Today, it is main component of a multi-purpose information systems. Cadastre is a parcel based system which can be recorded rights, restrictions and responsibilities of related land. Cadastre is accepted as a land information system and information about parcels must be geographically defined with an unique code. Cadastre provides information about land tenure, land value and land use. Thus, cadastral systems are the main function to assist appropriate information about land parcels to land administration systems. Land information system is a system which is designed to collect, store, manage and present information related land. Cadastral systems provide information which has great importance for social, legal and economic life evidently. In land administration systems, these information provided from cadastral systems should be accessible for the public service. The principles of access to information about land and land resources should be clearly identified. In addition, information about land should be protected against misuse. By preparing legal reforms, rules about sharing and using of data provided from cadastral system should be determined. The quality and standarts of information provided for land management process should be identified as well. Cadastral ssytems should be integrated with other information systems to solve environmental problems. Within the framework of sustainable land management, the establishment of an administrative structure, and the necessary legal regulations must be carried out. Land policies are applied with the help of legal regulations established in accordance with the principle identified. Thefore, while evaluating the effectiveness of a country’s land policy, the legal framework of land management and administration should be examined. This thesis describes current state of Turkish land legislation. Turkish land administration structure is evaluated from legal regulations perspectives. Turkey has not got efficient and effective land management system. According to researches, one of the main problem is that land related laws have fragmented and repetitve structure. Land legislation should be prepared with holistic and participatory approach in the light of long term goals. In this context, in this study, by making comprehensive research on legislation about land management in Turkey, existing legal regulations concerning the activities of the land in our country are determined. Presciriptive legislations are taken into account while determining legal regulations interested in land management. Then types of activities that are included in the laws of land are identified. By searching the purpose and scope of determined legislations, laws concerning first-order land management activities have been selected. Via the forms of legislation analysis, land management activities that require used or produced spatial data in the laws selected to have primary importance for the land management are examined. Thus, in terms of the requirement for spatial data, selected legislation are analyzed. The 15 queries are used in the legislation forms. 30 laws are selected to examine by using legislation analysis form. All of the researches show that land related laws have fragmented and repetitive structure in our country. Some land management activities are carried out by more than one law. In time, legal regulation is carried out to solve the problems instantly without long-term purposes in our country. In other words, the laws about land and land resources are prepared in order to meet instantaneous needs. Today, many institutions can obtain and use their data. The scope, quality and accuracy of the data produced by many institutions varies depending on the their project. For this reason, the data produced by different institution may not be available for other institution or organizations as it needs. Thus, required data for the project has to be collected again. As a result of this condition, time spent and cost are increasing. To use resources of country efficently, some regulations are needed to ensure the coordination between institution. In addition, there is no legal regulations about how the data required in the process of land management must be collected, stored, used or shared. The quality and standarts of information provided from land administration system should be determined by legal arrangement. Land related laws of our country are re-organized in a framework “Land Law” with holistic and participatory approach.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2012
Anahtar kelimeler
arazi yönetimi, arazi idaresi, arazi politikası, land management, land administration, land policy
Alıntı