Tarihsel Japon Bahçeleri Ve Ülkemizdeki Uygulanabilirliğinin Değerlendirilmesi

thumbnail.default.placeholder
Tarih
1997
Yazarlar
Demirbaş, Filiz
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu çalışma, kültür parkları kapsamına giren Japon bahçeleri'nin tarihi gelişim, tasarım, içerik yönünden araştırılmasını ve ülkemizdeki uygulanabilirliğinin irdelenmesini içeren bir yüksek lisans tezidir. Kültür tarihçileri, her büyük uygarlığın sonsuzlukla boy ölçüşen bir incelik içinde bahçe siyasetleri geliştirdiğini göstermişlerdir. Japon bahçeciliği için de bunu söylemek mümkündür. Çin'in etkisinde kalarak gelişen Japon bahçeleri, Uzakdoğu bahçelerini tanımlayan, günümüze kadar ulaşmış örnek bahçelerdendir. Japon bahçesi, efsanevi felsefesi, zarif stili ile geleneklerine bağlı Japonlar tarafindan orijinaline sadık kalınarak yüzyılllar öncesinden günümüze kadar gelebilmişlerdir. Tarihi Japon bahçeleri, 1500 yıllık bir sanat geleneğinin ürünüdür. Müze demek yanlış olur, yaşayan tarihdir. Yaşar, yaşlanır, değişir. Bahçede doğal görüntüler, doğal manzaralar vardır. Japon bahçeleri birçok insan yapısı elemana rağmen doğanın ta kendisidir. Japon bahçelerinin tasarımındaki ana faktörler arazi, iklim, insanların inançları ve bahçelerin algılanılmasındaki sosyal ve ekonomik temeldir. Bütün bunların doğrudan ilişkisiyle bir Japon bahçesi ortaya çıkmaktadır. Tarihi Japon bahçelerinde banş ve güçlülük duygulan hakimdir. Japonların gelenekler ve dinin etkisi altında düzenledikleri bu bahçeler için, çok yoğun çaba gösterdikleri açıktır. Gerek mimaride gerekse peyzaj mimarlığında, estetik ana amaç değildir. Mevcut alanlara daha geniş bir görüntü vermek, su, kum ve çim gibi düz alanlar oluşturmak, kompleks görüntüleri ortadan kaldırmak, ayrıca bahçe elemanları arasında tipik bir denge hissi yaratmak esastır. Bu tez kapsamında ilk olarak birçok peyzaj mimarına esin kaynağı olan, buna karşın ülkemizde fazla bilinmeyen Japon bahçeleri'nin tarihsel gelişimi, felsefesi, çeşitleri ve tasarım ilkelerinden söz edilmiştir. Bu tez kapsamında; Japonya dışında dünyanın en büyük Japon bahçesi olarak bilinen Kırşehir Kaman Japon bahçesi'nde yapılan anketlerin sonuçlan, bu tip bahçelerin ülkemizde uygulanmasını, kullanıcıların olumlu bir şekilde karşıladığını ortaya koymaktadır. Sonuç olarak dünyanın pekçok yerinde uygulanan buna karşın ülkemizde daha yeni yeni tanınmaya başlayan, Japon bahçelerinin tanıtılması ve uygulanması kentin yoğunluğu içinde daralmaya başlamış yeşil alanların tasarımı için oldukça önemlidir. Yapılan araştırmanın sonuçlarından da görüldüğü gibi bu tip uygulamaların ülkemizde başarılı sonuçlar vereceği şüphesizdir.
This project includes a post graduate thesis on; the research of historical development, design, philosophy of Japanese gardens and the research of evaluating the availability of their applications in our country. Japan is mild in climate and her landscape is beautiful. Together they give them a sweet and warm feeling of closeness to the land. Their ancestors were nature-lovers even in primitive age and never forgot the benevolence of the beautiful country or resisted nature, but always knew the joy of peaceful living reconciled to and identified with nature herself. Japanese people, with this heritage and with the influence of the Asian Continent, marked a great advancement in the Asuka-Nara period in garden designing. The story of Japanese gardens begins with the establishment of a Japanese state in the YAMATO area ( now Nara Prefecture ) during the 6th and 7th centuries AD and the establishment of the capital at Nara in the 8th century. One theory holds that when the ancestors of the Japanese passed through the Inland Sea area on their way to settle the Yamato area they were impressed by the seascape studded with islands. It was perhaps for this season that when they first made gardens amidst the mountains of Yamato they imitated ocean scenes by making large ponds with wild 'sea shores' and islands. During this period Buddhism was transmitted to Japan and immigrants from PAEKCHE on the Korean peninsula contributed continental influences to the Japanese garden, incorporating the theme of Shumisen (Skt : Sumeru), one of the Buddhist paradises, and adding stone fountains and bridges of Chinese origin. It was at this time that there arrived from China and Korea a court recreation enjoyed by emperors and courtiers, in which poems were composed and the participants floated cups of rice wine to one another along a winding garden stream. In 794 the capital was moved to Kyoto. This period is known as Heian Era. Here there was much marshland and it became necessary to engineer the control of water flow, reinforce riverbanks, and solidify the rims of ponds. In order to provide a sense of relief from the heat summer, waterfalls, ponds, and narrow streams ( yarimizu ) were made, which, passing between the buildings of the SHINDEN-ZUKURI mansions, also flowed through the gardens. The ponds were of simple shape yet large enough for boating, and at their edges, jutting out over the water, were erected fishing pavilions ( tsuri dono ) connected by roofed corridors the other structures of the mansion. The large area between the main buildings and the pond was covered with white sand and ussed for formal ceremonies. This type of garden, called the shinden style, was modeled after the Buddhist paradise described in the scriptures as the Pure Land ( Jödo ) of Amida Buddha. A good example of this is the garden of the BYÖDÖIN, a temple at Uji. xvm Chinese Taoist belief in the importance of the attainment of immortality, expressed in Japan through the symbolism of the crane and the tortoise ( tsuru and kame ) merged with the Buddhist JÖDO SECT tradition and subsequently this combined theme became the central motif of Japanese gardens. By the Kamakura ( 1185 - 1392 ) period temples had gradually been moved from cities to the mountains. Their restricted views, enhanced by construction on sloping ground, were designed to provide an environment more appropriate to the practice of various Buddhist disciplines. During this period priestly garden designers were called ' rock-placing monks ', the placement of rocks implying the creation of a garden. The greatest of these ' rock-placing monks ' was MUSÖ SOSEKI ( 1275 - 1351 ). At the temple SAIHÖJI he constructed a garden with ten wiews based upon the Chinese compositional method known as shying or ' ten realms '. The Muromachi period ( 1392 - 1573 ) has been called the golden age of Japanese gardens. Skilled groups of craftsmen known as senzui kawaramono ('mountain, stream, and riverbed people') were active, and there appeared the new kare sansui ('dry mountain stream') style of garden. The warrior class had replaced the aristocracy and was securely entrenched in government administration. The concepts of ZEN Buddhism which had earlier been introduced from China were also well established. It is customary to speak of the origin of waterless rock and sand gardens {kare sansui) as deriving from a combination of such traditions as Zen doctrine, shoin-style architecture ( SHOIN-ZUKURI ), Chinese ink painting, potted dwarf trees (BONSAI), and tray landscapes, the basic idea being the symbolic expression of a whole universe within a limited space. Though kare sansui is a garden form found nowhere else in the world, its development was probably influenced by the methods and perspective employed in the Chinese ink paintings known as canshan shengshui, landscapes of barren mountains and dry riverbeds. Shoin-style structures were small and faced onto gardens whose view was designed to be seen from within. In this way was developed a garden possessing an almost pictorial delicacy of composition which could endure long and studied observation. The confidence of the parvenu samurai who had managed to remain unscathed during the Sengoku period ( Age of Warring States; 1467 - 1568 ) was expressed in their gardens. They composed groupings of boulders of unique shape and striking color and used exotic foreign plants such as the sotetsu, a variety of sago palm, in the gardens. Standing in opposition to such superficial splendor was the TEA CEREMONY or Way of tea ( sadö ) as taught by SEN NO RTKYÜ, who emphasized a quiescent spirituality. The tea spirit represented an attempt to achieve inner peace, harmonious intercourse among men, and self-forgetfulness through the drinking of tea. The approach to a teahouse was through a tea garden ( roji niwa ) the ideal of which Rikyü sought in the desolate tranquility of a mountain trail. Among the contributions of the tea garden to the contemporary Japanese garden are stepping- stones, stone lanterns, groves of trees, as well as stone washbasins and simply constructed gazebos for guests being served tea. During the Edo period ( 1615 - 1868 ) a synthesis of preceding forms took place. The garden of the KATSURA DETACHED PALACE is made up of a number of tea gardens. This is an example of the kaiyii, or 'many pleasure' style, which became fully established midway in the Edo period, succeeding the kare sansui and shoin garden styles. The Katsura garden was built by an aristocrat but the majority of kaiyü gardens belonged to daimyö ( feudal lords ). In the Edo period, an age of synthesis in all cultural spheres, compositional details developed in the gardens of xix previous eras were used to create a synthetic whole. Around a large pond there might be scattered miniature scenes from the 53 stages of the TÖKAIDÖ highway, views of Mt. Fuji (Fujisan), the three famous views of Japan, or the many places sung of in classical Japanese WAKA poetry; there might be a winding stream ( kyokusui ), a pond İn the shape of the Chinese character for heart ( kokoro ) accented by the extreme convolution of its shoreline, a representation of the island of Hörai ( a fantastic island in Chinese mythology inhabited by immortal ascetics ), sanzonseki ( groupings of stones symbolizing three Buddhas, usually Yakushi, Amida, and Shaka, each accompanied by two attendants ), Chinese- style embankments and bridges, Confucian-style towers, representations of ancient Chinese-style rice paddies, teahouses, and gardens where daimyö and their advisers entertained themselves, practice grounds for archery and horse riding, and 'yin and yang stones,' symbolizing the male and female. All such elements were merged in harmonious unity with natural scenes -reduced in scale- of mountains, rivers, and valleys. The use of a large number of motifs was a natural development of the application of garden planning to the large grounds upon which daimyö built their mansions. As the grounds were customarily on low-lying flat land marked by little topographical variation, the builders dug ponds, raised hills, employed the technique known as 'borrowed views', in which distant hills in the background were integrated into the perspective of the garden, and introduced numerous other motifs into the design. In an age when the art of printing flourished, many noted garden texts were widely distributed, effecting a general popularization of the garden. A representative garden designer of this period was KOBORI ENSHÜ, whose work included the gardens of the Sentö Palace in Kyoto. The 2 main garden types are described. It's differentiated between the landscape garden with hills ( tsuki-yama ) and the level ground ( hira-niwa ). In addition, various stages of design were delineated. Shin is the elaborate construction, gyo indicates an intermediate stage and so is the abbreviated form. Japanese gardens possess a unique beauty derived from the combination and synthesis of various elements. There are no sculptured fountains, dynamic watercourses, or profusion of flowers in bloom. Rather, together with the functional beauty of the garden's purpose, there is a compositional beauty derived from a blending of various manifestations of material beauty provided by natural plantings, sand, water, and rock. This compositional beauty is made unique by the natural beauty of Japan's landscape, which undergoes considerable seasonal change, and a symbolic beauty arising from the expression of SHINTO beliefs and Buddhist intellectual conventions. Factors in the creation of the Japanese gardens are the land and the climate, the beliefs and the spirit of the people, and the social and economic basis upon which the gardens are realized. The interrelationship of these elements establishes the form of the garden. For this reason Japanese garden styles are referred to by the names of ancient provinces, historical periods, and the men for whom or by whom they were designed. It has been said that the use of groupings of rocks is a distinguishing feature of the Japanese garden and provides its basic framework. Rock groupings are well balanced and are made up of a few stones whose natural form has been retained. The ancestors of the modem Japanese referred to places surrounded by natural rock as amatsu iwasaka ('heavenly barrier') or amatsu iwakura ('heavenly seat'), believing that gods dwelled there. Dense clusters of trees were also thought to be the dwelling places of gods called himorogi ('divine hedge'). Moats or streams which enclosed xx sacred ground were called mizugaki ('water fences'). The creative origin of the Japanese garden can be seen in the ancient people's use of stone, water, trees and in the beliefs that supported such use. Other ancient practices that may have contributed structural elements to the Japanese garden include the planting of windbreaks to the rear of dwellings and the digging of moats for protection from enemies and wild beasts. Technique and Composition of the Japanese Garden - It has been said that the soul of the Japanese garden lies in its symbolic significance. However, this is true only when the original function of topiary composition has been fulfilled. In order for a garden to be usable as a garden certain elements of its design must be purely functional; at the same time, in order to impress viewers with its beauty, certain elements must be designed for effect. These conditions are of course not unique to Japanese gardens. What is particularly Japanese about Japanese gardens is that design elements of both types of detail are essentially independent units which, for the most part, adhere to traditional Japanese forms. These units are made up of natural rock, trees, and bamboo. Garden planning consists of selecting, according to terrain, a number of compositional units and placing them so that they form an organic whole. Skill in the making of a Japanese garden is based on an understanding of conventions concerning form, type, and implementation of compositional units. These units of compositional detail have been given names taken from the gardens in which they were originally employed. Methods of Scenic Composition - There are three basic principles of scenic composition : reduced scale, symbolization, and 'borrowed views'. Reduction in scale refers particularly to the kaiyii style garden, which brings together in a confined area adaptations of famous scenes and places of historical interest through miniaturization of natural views of mountains and rivers, and as in tea gardens, the creation, even within a city, of idealized scenes from a mountain village. Themes of Buddhist paradise such as Shumisen or Jödo ( the Pure Land ), which derive from the Buddhist cosmology and are in-appropriate for expression by means of scenic reduction, are represented through symbolization. Methods of symbolization are abstraction, as in the use of white sand to suggest the ocean, and inference, as in a grouping of stones or an island signifying the felicitous crane and tortoise. Use of a portion of a mountain or river to suggest the whole is a powerful symbolic device employed in Chinese paintings. The term 'borrowed view' ( shakkei ) describes the use of background views outside and beyond the garden, such as a beautiful mountain, a broad plain, or the sea. These are used in such a way that they become part of the interior scenic composition. It is for this reason that the surrounding view is an important factor in the selection of a garden site. The techniques of borrowed landscape and miniaturization are very important in the design and application of Japanese gardens. These techiniques could be described the handling of distance. This technique unifies people and natural landscape physically and psychologicaly. At the manegement of vista, the structure creates continuous sequences of small units. In this thesis, Kaman is chosen as a survey area where The Mikasanomiya Memorial Garden has been found. And in this area 400 inquiries had been made to get a correct conclusion. On may 3 1, 1986, a Japanese archaeological expedition team under the auspices of the Middle Eastern Culture Center started the first Japanese excavation in Turkey. During the ground-breaking ceremony for the excavition, it was planned to construct xxi a Japanese garden in Çağırkan, outside of Kaman in the Kırşehir Province, where the mound lies. The Mikasanomiya Memorial Garden was constructed in honor of H.I.H. Prince Takahito Mikasa's visit to Turkey, in memory of his starting the Kaman Kalehöyük excavitions and to establish a recreation area for the people living nearby. The plan of the garden was developed in 1988-1989; costruction continued from 1990 to 1993, and in September 1993 it was opened to visitors. This garden is one of the largest Japanese style gardens outside of Japan. The Mikasanomiya Memorial Garden was designed to combine the kaiyu and Shakkei styles. The construction of this garden was carried out with Turkish and Japanese cooperation. Previous Japanese gardens constructed outside of Japan, were buut over a very short period of time by Japanese designers and workers with materials shipped from Japan. The Mikasanomiya Memorial Garden was constructed by Turkish workers, with Turkish materials, intentionally over a long period of time. Only certain materials particular to Japanese culture were brought from Japan. The planning and supervision of the garden construction was executed by Japanese designers. It was during the 1860's that Japan's ports were opened again, having been closed to travellers for several centuries. As a result, there exploded throughout Europe a vogue for everything Japanese, including gardens. The most authentic ones were built by workforces brought over Japan for expressly that purpose. Japanese ideas about gardens have been enormously influential in the west, for instance in the ingenious design of small urban gardens to make them seem larger. Japan is a crowded island about 333 per/km2. For 1000 years, gardens in Japan have served as a buffer against congested living conditions. Too little space has impelled the Japanese to find repose in trees and shrubs, stones and sand, water and earth, artfully combined. Such concentration seem unfamiliar to our average density as it's 72 per/km2 statistically. But as most of us are well aware, the great concentration of our population is in metropolitan centers. The fact is, our urban areas are becoming jammed with people, and remaining suburban green space is fast disappearing. All of this suggests we would do well to borrow some of the innate philosophy of Japanese gardens, particularly as we grow more aware of our environmental problems. Nor is it unseemly to adapt, to draw from Japanese gardens what is best suited to our own, as we aren't Japanese. According to the results of survey, it is seen that most of the visitors have learned the park from their family or friends, only %2.3 of the visitors have learned it from the Middle Eastern Culture Center. According to the other results of the survey, %97.7 of the visitors liked this garden, %85.7 of the visitors determined that they got new ideas about Japanese culture after they had visited the park and %98.3 of the visitors thought that these kinds of parks are necessary to be found in our country. Although many landscape architectes in the world, have been inspired by Japanese gardens, they are not properly known in our country. But according to the results of the survey I can say that, constructing the Japanese gardens in our country will give successful results.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Japon bahçeleri, Japanese gardens
Alıntı