1980-1990 yılları arasında meydana gelen jet motorlu ticari uçak kazalarının analizi

Taner, Tunciz
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmanın konusu 1980 ve 1990 yılları arasında meydana gelen jet motorlu ticari uçak olay ve kazalarının analizidir. Çalışmanın amacı bu olay ve kazaların uçuş safhalarına göre ayrımını yapıp hangi nedenle meydana geldiklerini ortaya çıkarmış ve ilerde olabilecek olay ve kazaların ne tür tedbirlerle önlenebileceği hakkında bir sonuca varmaktır. Bu analiz yapılırken sivil havacılıkta, ticari anlamda büyük oranda kullanılan 22 adet uçak tipi ele alınmıştır. Uçuş, yerde, kalkış, tırmanma, düz uçuş, alçalma ve yakalama- iniş şeklinde altı safhaya ayrılmış, kaza nedenleri ise kokpit ekibi hatası, teknik arıza, yer koşulları, atmosfer koşulları, kontrolör hatası, araç-uçak çarpması, kuş çarpması ve diğer şeklinde sekiz maddede toplar arak olay ve kazaların uçuşun hangi safhasında, hangi nedenle meydana geldiği ve diğer bir takım bilgiler sonuç bölümünde grafiklerle gösterilmiştir.
1980-1990 The subject of this study is to analyse of the incidents and accidents which occured in jet powered civil air transportation within the period of 1980 and 1990. The purpose of the study is to get a result for the prevention of the incidents and accidents which mighl be occured in future, dividing the occurances in respect to flight phases and determining the causes. The aircraft types, selected for the analysis are A-300, A-310, A-320, BAC1-11, BAe146, B-707, B-727, B-737, B-747, B-757, B-767, CARAVELLE, CONCORDE, DC-8, DC-9, DC-10, F-28, IL-62, TU-134, TU-154, TRIDENT and TRISTAN. This study consists of three chapters. CHAPTER 1 covers the deceptions, CHAPTER 2 covers sample incidents and accidents and CHAPTER 3 covers the results and evaluations. Flight is divided into 6 phases as ground, take-off, cruse climb, cruse, descend and approach-landing. All of the causes are examined in cockpit crew failure, technical failure, ground conditons (apron, taxiway, runway etc.), atmospheric conditions, controller's failure, bird strike, vehicle or aircraft strike and other items. xv In the Chapter 1, according to Standarts and Recommended Practices - Aircraft Accident Investigation- Annex 13 of ICAO, the aircraft accident is defined as folows: An occurence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked in which : a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of : - being in the aircraft, or - direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft, or - direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are from natural causes, self- inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the irjuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew; or which the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure - adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and - would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component, except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories; of for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes, fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or - the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. Flight phases are described as follows : Ground : Any time the aircraft is on the ground including boarding, taxing, maintanence, etc. xvl Take-off : The phase begining from the break reloase in take-off position and terminating at 3000 ft. height above ground. Cruse Climb : The phase begining at the end of lake- off and terminating at the top of climb, with a net increase in altitude. Cruse : The phase begining at the top of climb and terminating at the point of descend. Descend : The phase begining at the point of descend and terminating at inital approach fix, with a net decrease in altitude. Approach-Landing : The phase begining at the nital approach fix and terminating with the vacation of the runway. The results obtained from the analysis are as follows The total number of the incidents and accidents which occured in the period is 784. The 40 of these occured in cruse climb phase whilst the 51 in descend phase, 84 in cruse phase, 134 in take-off phase, 142 in ground phase and 277 in approach-landing phase. The phases of the re main i nc 56 occurances are not known definitely. The number of the fatal accidents of total is 167 with the ratio of 21 % and the number of non-fatal occurances is 617 with the ratio of 79 %. In 1980, the number of occurances is 69 with the following years 64, 61, 77, 56, 69, 83, 79, 86, 81 and 59 in 1990. As shown in Figure 3.1, the number of incidents and accidents occured in approach-landing phase in the years between 1980 and 1990 takes the first place within total. in approach-landing phase, traffic is nearly maximum due to other aircrafts in the terminal area and the aircraft gets closer to obstacles as it approaches to land. Since the maintaining watch of flight instruments and outsids to xvli prevent mid-air collision and even the smallest devialions from the approach path should be recovered immediately, the work load level of cockpit is the highest during this phase. If it is considered that, numerous accidents occured in app reach- landing phase are associated with adverse weather, "the most critical phase of flight is the approach-landing phase" can be clearly said. Obviously, the number of fatal accidents within total is the highest in this phase. The number of incidents and accidents occured in lake- off takes the third place within total while the second in the number of fatal accidents and fatalities after approach- landing phase (Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6). In take-off phase, atmospheric and ground conditions are most effective as they are in approach-landing phase, the thrust required is maxi-num to provide an immediate ascend to safety altitude and handling technique of the aircraft must be very precise especially in case of rejected take-off so, it is clear that the density shown in Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6 releated with taks-off phase is not a coincidence but an emphatic situation of occurances. It is interesting that, in Figure 3.6, the number of fatalities in cruse phase takes the third place after approach- landing and take-off phases. Since cruse phase is relatvely routine and less hazardous in respect to other flight phases, this situation might be astonishing. But if it is consid9red that in 1983 a B-747 crashed due to missile fired from ground causing 269 people died, in 1985 another B-747 crashed due to metal fatigue at the aft pressure bulkhead causing 520 people died and in 1988 again a B-747 crashed due to sabotage causing 259 people died, this situation becomes much clear. Also, it should be noted that, rejected takeoff procedures require a higly qualified handling technique o1 the aircraft for effective directional control and breaking especially when taking-off from wet and slippery runv/ays with crosswind causing numerous of accidents occured due to cockpit crew failure. Finally, recomendations are as follows: 1) 3 factors are noticable in the incidents and accidents occured due to cockpit crew failure; low level of theoretical and practical knowledge, inadequet cockpit XVIII dicipline and lack of crew coordination. The adverse e fleets of these factors can be ceased with the right decision at the right time which is applied by pilots. For this, pilots should get an extensive training from the begining and try to increase their theoretical and practical knowledge during their carter. 2) Overhaul and maintenance procedures should never cover the procedures which are not prescribed in the volumes and fatique and crack tests should be done as required by the manufacturer in the periodic overhauls. 3) Passangers should be announced and seat belt signs on in the forecasted weather areas which are given on reports and weather charts even there is no radar return. 4) High effective meteorology stations should be established at the aerodromes as technological developments allow it. Approach facilities should provide proper information for precision approaches and approach and runway lighting should be more effective. 5) Airport arrangements should be done very precsely to meet increasing traffic load every year. Additionally, it is noticable that, the references indicated in the study are limited. Since the numerous aviation magazines and publications were examined to predict the incident or accident, it was very difficult to show
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
uçak kazaları, uçaklar, Aircraft accidents, Airplanes