Türkiyede'ki Toplu Konut Yerleşimlerinde Yönetim, Bakım-onarım Modelleri Ve Sorunları

thumbnail.default.placeholder
Tarih
1997
Yazarlar
Başdemir, Hüseyin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
1980'li yıllardan itibaren Türkiye'de toplu konut üretimi hızla yaygınlaşmaya başlamıştır. 1981 ve 1984'te çıkartılan Toplu Konut Yasaları ile 1987'de Toplu Konut İdaresi'nin kurulması ve çok önemli kamu kaynaklarının toplu konut üretimine kanalize edilmesi sonucunda büyük ölçeklerde toplu konut yerleşimleri ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu toplu konut yerleşimlerinin üretilmesi, bu yerleşimlerde konutlarla birlikte toplu yapı ölçeğinde ortak alan ve tesislere de "Yönetim ve bakım-onarım konusunda hizmet sunma gereksinimini beraberinde getirmiştir. İşte bu Tezde, Türkiye'de oluşmuş toplu konut yerleşimlerindeki Yönetim Modelleri incelenerek, buralardaki "Yönetim ve bakım-onarım sorunları değerlendirilmektedir. Bu amaçla hazırlanan tezin kapsamı şu şekilde oluşmaktadır: Bölüm l'de, tezin konusu ve amacının anlatıldığı "Giriş" bölümü yer almaktadır. Bölüm 2'de, "Kavramlar" başlığı altında yönetim ve bakım-onarım, genel kavram olarak tanımlanarak, bakım-onarımın genel olarak sınıflandırılması anlatılmıştır. Bölüm 3'de ise, "Konut yönetimi ve konutlarda bakım-onarım ile konutlarda bakım-onarımın çeşitli kaynaklardaki sınıflandırılması sentez edilerek anlatılmaktadır. Ayrıca bu bölümün sonunda Bölüm 2'de yer alan genel kavram olarak bakım-onarımın sınıflandırılması ile konutlardaki bakım-onarımın sınıflandırılmasındaki ortak noktalar tespit edilmiştir. Bölüm 4'te ise, Bölüm 2'de genel anlamlarıyla, Bölüm 3'de ise konutlardaki anlamlarıyla, anlatılmakta olan konut yönetimi ve bakım-onanımın Türkiye'deki toplu konut yerleşimlerinde nasıl uygulandığını ve sorunlarını görebilmek için, Türkiye'deki Toplu Konut Üretim ve Yönetim Modelleri anlatılmaktadır. Bölüm 5'te, Türkiye'deki toplu konut üretim modellerinden biri olan Toplu Konut İdaresi'nin ürettiği yerleşimlerde uygulanan yönetim modelinin sorunları ile ilgili bir anket araştırması ve sonuçlan yer almaktadır. Bölüm 6'da ise, daha önceki anlatılanlar ışığında ulaşılan sonuçlar ve öneriler yer almaktadır.
In Turkey, 1990's saw the nourishment of production of new mass-housing settiements and expansion of the old ones, in especially big cities. Followingly, emerged the problems of how to manage and maintain thousands of housing units built together, mostly in the form of multi-storey apartment houses and common spaces establıshed in order to meet the requirements for many different urban facilities. Though the "Mass-Housing law" passed in 1981 has been prepared as a basis for producing mass-housing through different production models, legal framework for managing them has not yet been formed. There is the "Law for Flat Ownership" passed in 1965 which had been established for the individual apartment houses built on öne plot. However, this law, as easily could be seen, is not, anymore suffıcient for and effîcient in the matters dealing with mass-housing including number of apartment houses built on öne big plot. The subject of this thesis is to investigate the problems of "Management and maintenance" of mass-housing settiements in Turkey which are developed through different production models, and to develop some proposals in order to minimize these problems. Basic concepts and explanations necessary for scrutinizing the subject are given in the second and third sections, following the chapter of introductory character. in "Section four" different production and management models for producing and managing mass-housing settiements in Turkey are explained with the emphasis on their problems. The following section, comprises the field survey which has been applied in two of the mass-housing settiements which have been developed by "Administration for Mass-housing" in Ankara. Hereby the implementation of "Maintenance and Management" model under the name of "Management of Mass- housing" prepared by the Administration and problems that have been faced since 1993 are examined and investigated via surveys done in three groups namely: inhabitants, managers of apartment houses (blocks), managers of plots. xii The last section consists of the results that have been deducted from the research done in the form of literature survey, interviews, and field-survey and the proposals for minimizing problems of management and maintenance. Contents of sections are given below in a more detailed form: In section one, which is "Inroductory Section", the state of art of mass- housing in Turkey is summarized stating that production of mass-housing has an important place in Turkey's urbanization and housing policy and therefore is subsidized by public funds. With the increase in the production of mass-housing, variations in production models have arousen and this, in return has brought forward the need for developing different understanding and various models for "Management and Maintenance of Mass-housing". The aim of this thesis is to investigate and examine the problems of models for managing and maintaining the mass-housing settlements through literature survey, interview with the authorized individuals and institutions and field survey and to developed proposals for handling and minimizing the pertinent problems. In Section Two, which is mainly a "Definitive" one, different definitions for the concepts of "Management and Maintenance" are given on general basis as follows: Concept of "Management" can be defined in different forms. The up-to-date definition is: "An activity directed to achieve rational cooperation or planning, operation and control of the activities in an enterprise for realizing its organizational aims in an economic and efficient way." [Orhon, 1987, p. 5] Maintenance can be defined as: "The totality of the activities in order to make any object acceptable for servicing anew to its aim or to keep it in its original state." [Pamir, 1988, p.5]. Concept of maintenance can be classified as following: 1. Protective maintenance, 2. Defect-Reliever Type of Maintenance, 3. Maintenance in Operating State, 4. Maintenance Requiring Leave-off, 5. Emergent Maintenance. xni Besides the above classification, goals of maintenance activities are given as:. Economic goals,. Security goals,. Social goals,. Goals for minimizing the costs. In Section Three, definitions about the concepts of "Housing Management", "Housing Maintenance" and classification of "Management and Maintenance of Housing" are given. Housing management can be defined as: "To provide the benefit expected from housing with the least use of resources or increasing the existing benefit with the rational use of resources in all the stages of building production process, before and after construction and thus forming the living environments which have desired qualities." [Uz, 1996, p. 17] Maintenance of housing can be defined as:"To rehabilitate or to renovate a part of or the surrounding of housing or its services in order to provide harmonization with a determined standard." [Beler, 1986, p. 3] A synthesis of different types of classifications related to "Maintenance of Housing" confronted in various documents is made in this section. This consists of three main headings, such as:. According to the Implementation whichof Maintenance. According to the Sub-systems on which Maintenance is based. According to the Elements on which Maintenance is performed. The sub-headings of these three main headings are also given in detail in the following paragraphs. At the end of this section, comparison of the general classification given in Section: 2.2.3 and classification related to housing in specific is made and common points are emphasized. In Section Four, under the heading of "Various Production and Management Models for Mass-housing in Turkey", formerly, production models are explained as following:. Mass-housing production through Housing Cooperatives, xiv . Mass-housing production through Private Housing Companies,. Mass-housing production through Bank of Real Estate (Emlak Bankası),. Mass-housing production through Administration for Mass-housing (Toplu Konut İdaresi). In Section 4.2 "Management and Maintenance Models", implemented in mass- housing settlements realized according to above-mentioned production models are examined with examples following the above-stated order. Section 4.3 deals with the problems of the "Management and Maintenance Models" implemented in existing mass-housing settlements. These problems have been determined through the interviews with the related authorized individuals and institutions (Companies, cooperatives and the Administration for Mass Housing) as well as through the literature survey done up to this part of the thesis. The most important and the most insisted on problem is that there is no legal framework which organizes and disciplines housing management in "Mass-housing Scale" and which has power of coercive intervention. The only legal arrangement on this subject is "Law for Flat-Ownership" which is found insufficient by all the housing managers. The reason is that this law includes the principles of legal organization and rules only in the scale of individual apartment houses (Blocks) on individual plots based on flat ownership. These principles based on individual ownership can not be operated in mass-housing settlements and that different types of legal organizations and set of rules should be established in order to manage and maintain common spaces and establishments of which the ownership is shared by the population inhabiting the settlement. In order to illuminate this major problem the related sentences of "Law for Flat-Ownership" are given and later evaluated in this section. Likewise, "Law for Cooperatives" does not, either, form the legal framework related to this matter and maintenance of the cooperative-housing almost does not exist. Although the management and maintenance models run by the private companies and Emlak Bank seem to operate well for the time-being the biggest problem lies in the long-run since there is no legal framework supporting these models and after the construction process is completely done on the site and the building companies or Emlak Bank are out, it is not clear whether the existing situation would be sustained. In Section 5, field survey realized in two mass-housing settlements in Ankara, namely "Eryaman I and Eryman II", realized by "Administration for Mass-housing" about the operation and problems of the model implemented is given: The aim and methodology of the field survey are explained, questions are given along with the analysis and evaluation of the answers one by one. xv In Section 6, findings of the field survey are considered together with the data provided upto Section. 5 and a synthesis is made as the consequences of the thesis. Based on these consequences, proposals are made in order to deal with and minimize the above- mentioned problems related to management and maintenance of mass- housing settlements.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Onarım, Toplu Konut Kanunu, Toplu konutlar, Yönetim, Repair, Mass Housing Law, Mass houses, Management
Alıntı