Kol Havaları

Dağlı, Kamil Kudret
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Bu calışma; daha çok Karadeniz bölgesinde görülen kol havalarının doğuş sebebini, kolbastı deyiminin nereden geldiğini, bugüne nasıl ulaştığını ve hangi yörelerde daha çok bulunduğunu ve müzik incelemelerini ihtiva etmektedir. Bu calışma, başlıca 5 bölümden olusmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, kol ve koldan türeyen tanımlar, kol havalarının oluştuğu ortam ve diğer yörelerde aynı amaca yönelik toplantılar, adetleri ve kuralları anlatılmaktadır. İkinci bölümde, kol ve kolbastı üzerine kişisel görüşlere yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, kol havalarının derleme tarihleri ve bilgi fişleri verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, ezgilerin müzik incelemeleri yapılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde, sonuç verilmiştir.
Turkey has a rich and deep history in respect of folklore. Researchers have generally administered their studies very comprehensively. But they have always neglegt- ed the interesting folkloric materials in the regions and restricted areas. By this present study, the folkloric products, which tend to forgotten or were lost have been brought to light, examined and gained a scientific identity. Due to the insufficiency of the information given about Kol Havaları in the collections of Halil Bedii Yönet ken, in the works of Mahmut Ragıp Gâzimihal, titled "Eastern Anatolian Folk Songs and Dances" until today, it has been indispensable to carry out this study. The study has been restricted to cities in respect of area, in stead of regions. The studies have been carri ed out in cities of Giresun, Trabzon, Yozgat. That is why we deemed suitable to divide the Kol Havalarx into subdivisions; we could see some similar social activites under different titles and by similar meetings, may be not under the title of "Kol Havaları", and we aimed to provide an opportunity to compare them. Prior to defining the term of "Kol Havası", we have carried out the ethymological examination of the suffixes and roots forming the term. In the written sources, by the definitions of "Kol" and its derivatives; Kol; "Subdivisions of some foundations, branch, part" "Each of the part into which an army is divided" "Any armed forces instructed to patrol or stand guard by the goverment especially at nights for preserving security" "Soldier group patrolling for the purpose of inspecting or securing" Kolcu; "Officer standing guard- or patrolling for guarding something, such as customs guard" - vii - "Used to define the guard officer at the establish ments getting incomes such as customs, forest and tobacco regie. That's why they are called 'Kolcu* because they go the rounds for pursuiting the smugglers. Before the Reforms, the customs guard officers were called 'Dideban', which means watchman" "Kol'cu derived from 'Kol', an officer charged at the establishments making profits in the Ottoman Empire, buch as customs and monopoly and forest establishments (which means keeper, that's why they go the rounds for pursuiting thefts and smugglers, they are called Kolcu)" Kola çıkmak; "an expression for the trips by horses, of the polices for preserving the public order around the city and the surroundings. The trips of polices in the cities, collectively or on foot were called "Kola cxkmak", "Kol gezmek". Kola binmek? "an expression used for the patrolling of the police officers in the city for the purpose of preserving the public order and not giving occasion for bad actions of the thefts, ominous groups. If this is by horses and for going out of city, it was called "Kola binmek" Kol gezmek; "in order to preserve the public order of cities and small towns, the trips of constabulary officers. Instead of that, it was also called "Kola çıkmak". In order to secure the public order night and day, the walks of military policeman in the bazaars and markets and on the streets of quarters were called 'kol gezmek'. Also "Devriye gezmek" was used for such a case. Karakol; "Karakol was derived from 'karagül and karavul' in the old Turkish. It is a compaund word of kara and kol. The word 'Kara' is a geographical term, which means air, sea, land. 'Kol' is the armed force of the state securing the public order. Throughout the history, 'Karakol' spreaded out in the Ottoman Empire, especially, after the conquest in 1453, during the time of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, in Istanbul. The difference of it from today's is that it only carried out the duty of preventing Kolluk. - viii - Later on, Kol Havaları and, chats and parties made in its environment have been a public tradition in Turkey. The demands of our people to spend a pleasant time by gathering together, the geographical structure as well as the natural conditions have made the parties in social solidarities indispensible. Kol Havaları has arisen within the conditions established by unavoidable party events. Kol havaları has originated from the parties with musical instruments, talks, drinks, dances and women held by the young brave genuine men, who are rather to die than give away a secret, collectively, hidden from the Kolluk forces, many years ago, namely in the periods of Pre and Post-Decleration of Republic. Such parties were those at which ones were afraid of being surprized at any moment. Since those who attack suddenly are the kolcu itself, the played melodies carried a sign of warning. Such a song indicating that Kolcu was coming was played upon denunciation from out side, and everyone gathered together, the prohibited things were hidden. For this reason, such melodies played at such parties and carrying a sign of warning were call ed "Kol Havası" or "Kol Bastı", dedicated to Kolcu. Since the elements in such meetings were drinks, women, music and dance were not tolerated in Islam reli gion and because there was a great possibility of being carefuly pursuited and denunced by the conservative groups, it was necessary to make the party secretly. It was a characteristic of such parties that they were made at the secret places which cannot be seen by any one and reached, and that those who would participate in the party were elite persons. The medium at where Kol Havaları arose has come into being by the development of such social events. As a result of the pressures applied to some parts of society, it incited the people who like such parties to hold them secretly and, upon the social events, they gained a folkloric characteristic. During our studies, in the written documents about the names, traditions and rules of the meetings, also available in other regions but called with different names, we saw such meetings of which conditions are the same but their objects are different. It is also possible to take this up in two forms. In one part, drinks, women, dance and music are present, but in the. second part, only dance and music. Of course, the events progress in different ways. In one of them, entertainment is the object, and in the other, moral rules, good manner and discipline are the primary things. In this chapter, the rules and systems of meeting have been provided and there are also some comparisons, the information about the content of such meetings has been provided in a sequence. - ix - Let's tell shortly the characters, rules of the good behaviours and systems of these meetings. They don't accept everybody to this meeting. The person who candidate of acceptance of this meeting should be known rules of the good behaviour and old enough. It is necessary to familiar and advicied. It is not able to come without inviting. There is a way of going to these meeting. The invited people couldn't have gone to these meeting without taking anything. They should take someting to eat to these meet ing but nobody knows what they take. It were giving to people whom waiting in front of the meeting, to use all- together. They weren't able to go there as armed (with gun and knife). They should give then to one person who trusted to hand over before join these meeting. There is a president of these meeting. This presi dent was a person who respected, the oldest or experienc ed, to be liked by society for unknown reason. The meet ing was administrated by this kind of person. The law was what the president says. Sit down-sit down, stand up- stand up, sit comfortable-sit comfortable, drink-drink, play the bağlama (instrument) -play the bağlama, began music-began music, president give to saki (the person who fill the alcohol to the people's glass) with eye brow. The saki began his job after president eyebrow order. There is a rule of handing glass. The saki doesn't fill the glass sometimes because the glass of the hand at the visitors, and nobody knows what they drink. Saki looks at drunk visi tors eyes and doesn't fill the glass (but visitors take the glass as if it was filled) to present ungood behaviour (because, they are getting drunk). There is no act of molestation to the Saki. The visitors should be very good- mennered during siting, standing-up, eating, drinking and amusing without getting crazy and looking at the women as bed intertionly. Everything is on the programme. Everything is ordered by president that where and when to began what will be said and when will the conversation began. The play began when everybody getting a litte drunk and goes on up to morning in the early morning everybody goes to their home as unseen and secret meeting ended like this. All these rules of these kind meeting can be a little different for society but general rules are usually the same. - x - By the face-to-face discussions with the person who are still alive and experienced such parties, and the enterviews with T.R.T. Radio Artists, we aimed to clarify the matter. Because, such persons were the first research ers and artists of the time and also, they lived the setting of Kol Havalara, they were a unique source. Upon the studies on the spot, we saw that many old persons are not alive anymore and the youngs do not know such things. At the other study part, we have delivered the derivation dates of the melodies at hand and the information cards. This Kol Havası melodies of which information are provided by us, are the last melodies at hand and musical noted. At the derivation cards of Ankara State Conserva tory, we saw a lot of works under the name of Kol Havası but those are not noted musically yet, they are only stored at archives. Despite of many written requests, we could not examine such documents. In other chapter, musical structure of the melodies have been studied. The object is to find out the similar and different aspects and make the Kol Havaları gain a characteristic. As a result, in the light of the above written information, we tried to preserve the authenticity of the Kol Havaları melodies, by knowing their reasons and purposes. It will also be a source to other studies to be carried out in such field of Turkish Folkloric Music
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1993
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Ezgi, Karadeniz bölgesi, Kol havaları, Türk halk müziği, Music, Melody, Black Sea region, Kol havaları, Turkish folk music