Kentsel Peyzaj Öğesi Olarak Kıyı Mekanı Ve Bandırma Üzerine Bir İnceleme

Alkay, Elif
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Su ve karanın birleştiği şuur ve sınırın her iki tarafında belli bir derinliği olan kıyı mekanı, bu coğrafik özelliği nedeniyle kullanışlar için çekici budandır. Sahip olduğu doğal ve kültürel değerler ile anlamlı olan bu mekan parçası, yoğun kullanışların baskısı altında ezilmekte ve doğal denge ve değerlerini yitirmektedir. Her kullanışın kıyı mekanı üzerinde yarattığı olumsuz etkiler farklı boyut ve niteliktedir. Böylesine değerli bir mekanın korunması, kullanılmaması demek değildir. Ancak kıyının koruma-kullanma dengesi içinde kullanışlara kaynaklık etmesi zorunludur. Bunu başarabilmek de kıyı mekanını tanımlamak ve ülkesel boyuttan başlayıp yerel boyuta inen ardışık ve bütüncül bir sistem dahilinde bu mekanı kullanım, politika ve programlan üretmek ile mümkündür. Bandırma yoğun kentsel kullanışlar ile kıyı mekanını tüketmiş bir kenttir. Kentte su ve kara ekolojisi yanısıra kıyının siluet değerleri de büyük ölçüde bozulmuştur. Kent-kıyı, birey-kıyı ilişkileri kopmuştur. Bu nedenle, kıyı mekanının sosyal ve kültürel bakımdan nasıl geliştirilip geri kazanılabile ceği konusu irdelenmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler kıyı-kent, kıyı-toplum ilişkilerini güçlendirecek yeni bir işlev belirlemiştir ki bu da; kıyı mekanının kent parkı olarak kullanılmasıdır.
Coastal space is the area where water and land join eachother and is very valoable for some land uses. The utilization of coastal land of industry, transport, residental and recreation resulted by the lost of their natural and environmental value at different level. These areas are very salient with their natural properties, therefore natural assets have to be protected. Every land-use generates different disturbances on coastel places. The first adverse effects that are expected from particular types of uses are those that related to transportation. Different transportation terminals such as airports, roadways, marinas, bridges have different negative effects. The degree of damage is proportinal to the proximity of coastal space. Transport is not only causing water and land pollution, but visual pollution as well. Additionally, it has secondary effects such as supporting new housing, commercial development along the arterials. Coastal space with its adjanet area or vicinity are used densely related with these secondary effects. This cause, to prevent to reach seaside easily and the relationship between city and sea is ceased. Industrial use in the fallowing most important utilization at coastal spaces. Because the cost of coastal lowlands is low, the access to markets is easy and supplies water transportation. Related with these factors industry always prefers locating waterfront to inland. Many industries such as shipping terminals, are waterfront located of necessitiy. Except these kinds, other ones prevent to locate on coastal space to be saved from the pressure of these uses. Additionally, the predictable impact of an industrial area includes seconary development for example, a factory may attract new housing project, shopping centers and other anciallary development on surrounding lands. All these uses not only lead great disturbance on coastal space but make pressures on it also, and break relationship between city and it. They prevent other parts of city to contact with sea and coastline. XI 1 Residental use has adverse effects on coastal space too. The process of residental development causes disturbances both from construction activity and human occupancy and activity. The degree of disturbance is hightened with increased density of development, closer proximity to the water and the ecologic sensitivity of the ecosystem. Residental community requires roads, parking lots waste, treatment facilities etc.. Each of these secondary effects has the potantial for disturbance of coastal ecosystems. There are some lows in our country, which give direction and put some rules for usage of coastline and coastal space. Firstly, they define what coast, coastline and coastal space is Then, they determine what kind of functions should be situated on coastal space. Lows not only determine functions and construction properties but give directions how these areas should be used with their natural values also. Additionally public rights is secured by lows. But lows are changed frequently in our country. This cause some problems. During the period of preparing new lows, proper usege of coastal space is prevented. Solving this problem lows must be prepared for a long period, and they must be suitable for public rights. Creating long time low order depends on recognizing coastal morphology. Coasts have different morphological properties. White preparing low order it is necessary to be regarded at that point. After all of the explanation we can say that coastal spaces have been losing their natural value, and visual properties. This is why they have to be protected. Adverse ecologic disturbance and pressures of uses must be reduced to minumum, in spite of the pressures and increasing residental uses coastal ecosystems can be maintained at high levels with effective planning and management. The conservation of these areas does not mean that these places will not to be used at any time. However, it must be created a balance between conservation and functions situated in coastal places. First of all, creating this balance successfully depends on defining coastal space with its natural and physical properties. Furthermore, to use these areas properly, it is necessary to develop policies and to take decisions. Using these areas as convenient as a natural properties and public-rights must be the main goal. The coordination between goverment, local authorities and public comunities has to be built up to realize this main goal. Otherwise, we can see that under this densely uses and pressures, coastal space will be worse in future. Although this negative developments occur all around the world, there are still some beautiful examples to be protected as a natural beauty. These kind of areas must be fixed and to be created buffer around them to prevent pressures and unsuitable uses. Combining all up to this point, the coastal spaces can be classfied according to their quality and must think about how these areas are developed and planned related to cultural, social and economic factors The only way of Xlll winning back these areas is to give them a new better role or function and to improve environmental values. All the informations explained above, give some idea about problems occuring by using coastal spaces. In this thesis having the title of "Coastal Space As An Element Of Urban Landscape And A Case Study Of Bandırma", a method is investigated to help solving problems and to develop planning decisions. This methodology is to identify coastal space with its properties by emphasizing its importance in the whole space and examining all problems occuring in these places. In the second part of the research, Bandırma study area choosed to examine all problems in a specific area. Using all information obtained from the research, the meaningful and suitable coastal use of Bandırma is tried to be developed. The city of Bandırma is situated in the Marmara Region. It is in the origin of the triangle of Istanbul, Bursa and İzmir, These three cities are some of the most important cities of Turkey. Bandırma can manage to use the advantage of its situation. The harbour situated in the Bandırma Gulf looks like a door openning to the region of the Inner Anatolia. Industry, trade and service sectors are placed on the city's land densely. The population of the settlement started to increase after the development of Etibank and the harbour. Meanwhile the environment created by human activities started to change also. This period of time was the beginning of the dense building development. The coastal space was the most and worst effected area from these pressures of land uses occuring with dense building development. The Bandırma Gulf absolutely dispersed by industry, harbour and residental uses. Today, industry is the dominant activity in the Gulf. The high quantity of the factories in the area, parricides from their chimneys and solid wastes, the transportation all together make pressure on the coastal area. Acording to the investigation reports, the size of water pollution has reached very serious level. In addition to this, air and soil pollution cause visual pollution as well. Bandırma Harbour is one of the dominant activity supported by industry. The harbour area is very close to the central region of the city. This is the reason of not connecting the city with sea. However, a relationship between city and sea for all coastal cities is wanted to achieve maximum use of seashore according to public rights. But in Bandırma, Harbour prevents this kind of development today. Furthermore, there are two piers which prevent harbour to have north winds and natural run off the water by breaking water. The Harbour area looks like a pool surrounded with piers, because of this sea is very dirty. In addition to industry and harbour, residental use on the coastal space is very irresponsible as well. Buildings situated along the coastline without having some open spaces between them. On the other hand, they are all high xiv buildings and this is the other negative element. These high and densely placed buildings cause to spoil environmental values and skyline by breaking natural relationship between sea and the other parts of the city. Meanwhile, microclimatic conditions such as winds, sun and shade are changed to unsuitable conditions with present development of the settlement. All the factors situated unsuitably in the Gulf and the coastal space, prevent to use of these areas properly. They are artificial bariers that make difficult to reach the coastal space. Whereas, in seaside cities, removing these kinds of bariers and maximizing relationship between coastal area and other parts of settlement are preferred to have better urban developments. These areas are an alternative for dense urban land-uses and they are potential recreation areas for public uses. In Bandırma, having this subject importantly, a new use for coast-line was proposed. According to this proposal the area is used like an urban park. By this way, it is possible to have some benefits satisfying and giving freedom for public-use. By this way, the natural values of the coast can be emphasized. It was thought that this kind of project should be supported as scientific investigation, all parks of Bandırma were taken in the content of research. After the analizing part of this research was completed a synthesis was made. On this stage, it was seen that urban parks of Bandırma were inadequate both quality and quantity. Moreover, there were no parks capabiling to serve the demand of people living in the settlement. In the questionnaire part of the study, how people wanted to use the coast was learnt and this results gave direction on land-use of proposed park. All parts of this study proved that the aim determined at the beginning of this research is rationalist. After this point, land-use of park area was made. Firstly, transportation decisions were taken and this gave idea for pedesterian and vehicle traffic routes of the area. The entrances of the park were determined by relating with these routes. The first one of these entrances is near the central area of the settlement. The reason is that pedesterion circulation on this area is very dense. The second entrance looks like a secondary entrance if it is compared with the first one. There is a car park near that point. The third entrance is situated on the city beach and picnic area by connecting with the park. There is one more car-park this part of the area. Secondly, decisions were taken about functions and decided now functions should be situated properly. The park was divided into three parts related with entrances. These parts are called A,B and C. A subregion, on the first entrance point of the park takes part in, were situated cultural and amusement functions which have dense pedesterian circulation. As a result of closer proximity to the center region of the city gave direction of land-use of A area. B subregion is located XV on the second entrance. This area is rounded by dense buildings. Sunny and shade sitting areas, natural cultural functions such as country gardens and dense trees were determined related with explained factor. Slient and short distance uses prefered for this subregion instead of noisy and having dense pedesterian circulation uses. C subregion is on the third point of the park. This area is closer city beach and picnic area. Unfortunately, they are under the pressures of residental uses. While the land-use of the park was critisizing this point was given importance. It was wanted to create an entegration between the park and these areas. This idea gave direction to decision about functions. Service and spor activities were situated on this area. At the and it was occured the ruction relationship scheme for whole area. I believe that this proposal use helps to win the part of the coastal space back and to entegrate it with the other parts of the city. Generally dense urban uses make impossible to create an urban park in the center region of the city and its adjanet area. Creating an urban park on coastal space will be an opportunity for Bandırma. By this way, both possible to have an urban park closer to the center region and conservation of coastal space. In sum, environmental values can be improved. In conclusion, all coastal spaces have to be protected with their natural values. It is a desirable and achievable goal to maintain coastal ecosystems at their highest and best ecologic condition. By this way, new generations have a chance to benefit from these areas.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Balıkesir-Bandırma; Kıyı şeridi, Balıkesir-Bandırma ;Coastal line