Organizasyonlarda yöneten ve yönetilenlerin iş tatmini ve motivasyonu

thumbnail.default.placeholder
Tarih
1994
Yazarlar
Atan, Özlem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
İTÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Özet
Motivasyon insan davranışlarına çeşitli yollardan etki eden bir güçtür. Çalışanların organizasyonal amaçlar doğrultusunda harekete geçirmek, aynı zamanda is tatminlerini sağlamak, bir yöneticinin en önemli vazifelerinden biri haline gelmiştir. Çalışanları motive ederken aynı zamanda is tatminlerini sağlamak, organizasyonlardaki işgücü devri ve devamsızlığını azaltacak, verimliliği arttıracaktır. Yas, meslek, kültürel değerler ve toplumsal şartlar çalışanların isten duydukları tatmini etkileyecektir. Motivasyon kavramına organizasyonel bakış açısı yönetim akımları ile beraber değişim göstermiştir. Klasik yaklaşım ve insan ilişkileri yaklaşımından sonra motivsasyonel problemlere artık insan kaynakları perspektifinden bakılmaktadır. Geçmişten günümüze geliştirilen motivasyon teorileri içerik ve proses teorileri olmak üzere iki temel sınıflandırmaya tabi tutulmuştur. içerik teorileri hangi faktörlerin insanları motive ettiğini araştırırken, süreç teorileri bu faktörler arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemiştir. Motivasyon yönetimi organizasyonlarda bilinçle yaklaşılması ve sabırla uygulanması gerekli bir prosestir. Bu prosesin aşamaları çalışanlardan beklenen davranışların ortaya konması, motivasyon stratejilerinin saptanması, gerekli motivasyon uygulamalarının yürürlüğe konması son olarak da uygulama sonuçlarının gözlenmesi ve değerlendirmesinin yapılmasıdır. Bu çalışmanın araştırma kısmında bankacılık sektörü çalışanlarının iş tatmini ve motivasyonunu etkileyen faktörlerin neler oldukları, bu faktörlerin mevkiye göre nasıl farklılaştıkları, genel iş tatminini etkileyen faktörlerin neler olduğu ve banka yöneticilerinin konuya bakış açıları incelenmiştir. "Ücret düzeyi", "ilerleme ve terfi imkanları", "sabit iş garantisi" banka çalışanları için en önemli motivasyon faktörleri olarak belirlenmiştir. Aynı şekilde yöneticiler (müdür ve şefler) astları için bu üç faktörü birinci derecede önemli görmektedir.
The term motivation derives from the Latin word movers, meaning "to move". The term motivation refers to the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction» By appealing to this process, managers attempt to get individuals to willingly pursue organizational objectives. Academic interest in mat i vat ion has increased dramaticly in recent years. Some twenty five years ago, knowledge about motivational problems in management consisted of a few basic generalisations that had been established after little or no research, Begining in the early 1960s, however, interest increased significantly. This trend has continued through the 1980s. Today, it is difficult to pick up a journal of magazine about management without finding at least one article on motivational problems. There are three reasons why motivation is important: 1 -People must be attracted not only to join the organisation, but also to remain in it. 2-People must perform the tasks for which they are hired, and must do so in a dependable manner. 3-People must go beyond being just dependable. They must also engage in some form of creative, spontaneous, and innovative behavior at work. Job satisfaction is one of the important subject which has been interested by individuals especially concerned with the world of work. There has been some different definitions of job satisfaction concept by many authors. One of them is that the feeling a worker has about his job. Recently., the interest has focused heavily on 'issues associated with the measurement of satisfaction. Some variables are related to job satisfaction. Some of these variables ares - labor turnover, - absenteeism, - productivity, - age, - occupation, - cultural values, - social conditions. -vi i i-To appreciate what we know about employee motivation, it is helpful to review earlier approaches. In general, motivation theory evolved through three different areas. These are the traditional approach, the human relations approach, and the human resources aproach. Firstly, according to traditional approach it is assumed that management knew more about the jobs being performed then the workers did, that economic gain was the primary thing that motivated everyone, that work is inherently unpleasant for most people and that the money they earn is more important to employees than the nature of the job they are performing. Proponents of the traditional approach was developed by Elton Mayo and his associates. Secondly the human relationists emphasised the role of social process in the workplace. Their basic assumptions were that employees want to feel useful and important, that employees want to belong to a social group, and that the needs are more important than money im motivatig employees. Thirdly, the human resources approach to motivation carries the concepts of human needs and motivation one step further. It assumes that people want to contribute and are able to make geniune contributions. Management's tasks then, is to encourage participation and to create a work environment that makes full use of the human resources avaliable. This philosophy guides the most contemporary thinking about the employee motivation. All the theories that attempt to explain employee motivation is far beyond the scope of this thesis. We have reduced too many theories to two major catagories: Content theories and process theories. Content theories are generaly concerned with individual needs. These teories seek to identify the specific needs that energize a person's behaivour. According to content theories, the source of motivation are the sets to fulfil needs. Content theorists seek to identify these needs and to understand the relationship among them. Four widwly known content theories on motivation are: - Mas low' s theory, - Herzberg's theory, - Mc. Clelland's theory, - Alderfer's theory. Mas low' s theory assumed that people are motivated to satisfy various needs and that these needs can be arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Maslow's hierarchy of needs assumes that there are five need levels. These are physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self actualization needs. Maslow suggests that these five need categories constitute a hierarchy. -i^f-Herzberg's theory is the two factor theory. Herzberg found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and with dissatisfaction. The two sets of factors are identified by Herzberg as causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The factors influencing the satisfaction continuum called motivation factors. These are related specifically to the work content. The factors presumed to cause dissatisfaction called hygiene factors are related to the work environment. In addition to the previous theories, there are contemporary theories of motivation. Mc Clelland's theory of motivation have focused more on the important needs themselves without being concerned about ordering them. The three needs most often discussed are the needs for achievement, affiliation and power. The need for achievement is the best known of the three. Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory assumes that there are three groups of core needs: Existence, Relatedness and Growth. Existence group includes physiological and safety needs. Relatedness is the desire for maintaining interpersonal relationships and these social and status desires include social need and external compliment of Maslow's esteem classification. Growth needs - an intrinsing desire for personal development - include esteem category and self actualization. Process theories, by contrast, try to explain and describe the process of behaviour is energized, directed, sustained and stopped. Process theorists first try to define the major variables that explain motivational beahaviour. These variables include rewards, needs and incentives. The theorists then attempt to specify how the variables interact and influence one another to produce certain kinds of behaviour. Process theories in this thesis are: - The Vroom's Expectancy Theory - The Porter & Lawler Expectancy Theory - Adam's Equity Theory - Locke's Goal - Setting Theory Expectancy theory introduced by Victor Vroom states that a person's motivation to behave in a certain way is determined by (1) the outcomes the person sees as desirable and (2) the person's belief that these desired outcomes can be attained. In the Porter &. Lawler ' s Expectancy Theory, effort depends on the "value of a reward" plus the " perceived -x-energy" a person believes is required and the probability of actually receiving the reward. The "perceived energy and probability of reward" are also infuenced by the record of actual performance. If employees have perviousely performed a particular job, they know better the probability of receiving rewards from doing it. Adam's Equity Theory contents that motivation is related to how fairly emloyees feel the outcome of their work is judged, compared to that of other employees. Goal Setting Theory assumes that specific and difficult goal lead to higher performance, and to higher level of employee production. Managing motivation is very important process for all managers. Managing motivation can be defined as creating an environment that people achieve a specific goal. Managing motivation is a basic function of the top and middle manager. Because, it is more important for managers in higher organizational level to have knowledge about how to "manage" people than how to produce goods and services. Managing motivation process consists of four stages : 1- Determinig the expected behaviours of employees (this stage also includes what needs employees want to satisfy). 2- Making clear motivational strategies. 3- Required motivational practises must be applied. 4- Practising results must be observed and critisized(Ef fective, immediate and continuous feed-back system must be evolved by managers). Today, motivational practices are not directed towards to determine the expected behaviours of employees. These are especially focus on monetary rewards, which is supporting negative competition. A research has been done to determine the job- satisfaction and motivation of employees in banking sector. The reason why they choose banking sector is that banking is a service sector and "human" factor has a prominent role. As an outcome of intensive competition environment, they are in a race to provide their customers with the easiest, fastest, best and most different services. The most reliable way of having a leading position in this race is being aware of the fact that customer »«-m «-f»/»*- inn,,. sa^ısracrıon can be realised with employee satisfaction. However, the results of the research have revealed that this fact has been neglected or given a -VI -secondary role. One of the significant aims of the research is to evaluate the employees in accordance with their positions. Through this, it will be possible to discover the differences in the job satisfaction and motivation of employees resulting from their positions and to develop policies and strategies accordingly. The most important duty of a succesful manager is to direct his staff along with the organisational purposes and together with doing this, to take the aims and needs of the staff into consideration. For this reason, to what extent those people occupying a managerial position are aware of their staff's needs has been investigated. Taking those theories of motivation which have been put forward through time and supplemented each other into consideration, 23 job factors concerning job itself and its environment have been determined. That any factor has any powerful effect on employee to direct him towards work is closely related to its level of importance as well as its level of satisfaction. So employees were asked to put these factors in order of importance. When developing policies and strategies concerning the motivation of employees, it is necessary to give priority to those factors which occupy the highest position in order of importance and which are also the least satisfactory. The most important five factors for the employees of banks are as following: "level of wages", "possibilities of promotion", "cotinous job security", "having the chance to learn new things continously and to develop themselves", and finally "good and understanding managers". The first three factors that branch directors and department heads think to be the most important onnes for their staff are again "level of wages", "continous job security" and "possibilities of promotion". The last two factors are "fair wages" and "plentifulness of social facilities". As a result, managers have agreed upon the idea that staff gives importance to materialistic means of reinforcement and can be motivated through these. The factors of which employees of banks suffer from dissatisfaction are "having the chance to learn new things continously and to develop themselves", "the quality of pivate relatiorships with colleauges" and "job security". This situation is a result of both the crisis experienced in the economy of the country in recent yearsand automation in banking operations. Employees, having the idea that the need for themselves is continously decreasing or that they are only an ordinary component of the system, aiways think that they might lose their jobs and carry the heavy load of this threat. -XI 1-The factors that employees of banks are most satified with in their jobs are "the use of acquired knowledge and experience at work", "the quality of working environment", "a respected job in society", "a familiar working group", "understanding and intimate care from superiors". These factors are also the reasons why employees of banks prefer their present jobs.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Çalışma Ekonomisi ve Endüstri İlişkileri, Labour Economics and Industrial Relations, Motivasyon, Motivation, Organizasyon, Organization, Yöneticiler, Managers, İş doyumu, Job satisfaction
Alıntı