Kooperatiflerce yürütülen konut üretiminde nakit planlaması

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Tarih
1993
Yazarlar
Köksal, Ahmet
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Ülkemiz, özellikle büyük kentlerimiz bugün hem büyük bir konut sıkıntısıyla karşı karşıya hem mevcut konut alanlarının nitelik sorunlarıyla mücadele etmek zorunda hem de yasadışı konut üretimiyle başa çıkmak durumundadır. Bu tez, sorunları ilişkili olduğu bütüne bağlayarak analiz etmek yolunu seçmiştir. Bundan dolayı, konut üretiminin ilişkili olduğu bütünden nasıl etkilendiğini ortaya koymak için Sistemler Yaklaşımı seçilmiş ve bu etkiyi veren global ölçekteki üst sistemler olarak da Ekonomik, Politik, Kültürel ve Teknolojik Üst Sistemler belirlenmiştir. ikinci Bölüm'de bu üst sistemler kısaca analiz edilmiş, konut piyasasına etkileri açıklanmışve ortaya çıkmasına sebep oldukları konut üretim modellerinden bahsedildikten sonra da sorunları çözmeye aday bir üretim organizasyonu olduğu ortaya konan konut kooperatiflerine ilişkin daha detaylı bilgi de verilmiştir. Konut kooperatiflerinin üretim sistemi ortaya konmuş ve üretimin total kalitesini arttıracak öneriler sıralanmıştır. Üçüncü bölüm'de genel olarak konut finansmanı ve nakit akışı planlaması konularından sözedilmiş, nakit planlamasının bina yapımındaki yeri ve önemi vurgulanmıştır. Dördüncü Bölüm'de konut kooperatiflerinde önemli bir problem olan, nakit planlamasının yetersizliği nedeniyle aylık ödemelerin tahminlerin üzerinde artmasına ve ortakların bir kısmının kooperatiften ayrılması durumu incelenmiş ve bu duruma çözüm getirebilecek yaklaşımlar sergilenmiştir. Son olarak bu yaklaşımların uygulanabilirliğini tartışmak üzere yapılmış bir uygulamadan çıkarılan sonuçlar anlatılmıştır.
Turkey which is a rapidly growing country have a great housing problem. In the context of the housing problem there are some sub-problems such as low quantity of legal housing production, low quality level of existing housing stock and high quantity of squatter housing production. This thesis aims to show the reasons which are caused problems by beginning from macro scale. For this reason, it prefered to analyse the problems by relating the whole which is depended. Systems Approach is selected to analyse how the housing production is effected the whole depended. Systems at macro scale are defined Economical, Political, Cultural, Technological systems. In chapter 1, world's new economic and politic structure towards the third millenium defined briefly and the problems of developing countries in this new order is elaborated. On the other hand, the role and spesifications of housing problem in these problems are explained. The approaches to solve the housing production are presented and it is claimed that one of these approaches (co operative housing) is better than the others. In chapter 2 which is interested in Housing Production System in Turkey, firstly elaborated housing production system in general and analysed systems effected the system. Economical System and Turkish economy since 1923 is examined in section 2.1.1. According to this, the problems of Turkish economy are income distribution, population growth and irrational utilization of national resources. Share of housing investments which are 25% in Gross Fixed Capital Formation and 7% in Gross National Product and distribution of economic sectors in Gross National Product are also showed in this section. The policies directly effected housing in Turkey are analysed in two groups in section 2.1.2. which is interested in Political System; Economic Policies and Urbanization Policies. After the World War II, two important developments which are oriented by the foreign capitals and technologies in the country are came into being; Mechanization in agriculture and establishing national industry supported import substitution. These facts are caused of very important new developments such as migration. Urbanization policies can be also examined in two groups. Urbanization vii policies on migration and urbanization policies on development of cities. Solving problems in development by creating new settlements which is lived by people who migrated from rural area is cheap and easy. For this reason migration is used as development instrument. On the other hand, terrorist movements of nationalists and fundamentalist religious groups are accelerated to migration from Southeastern Anatolia to western Anatolia recent years. Two political preferences on development of cities effected deeply today's city form ; Forgiving squatter housing and Flat Possession Law. Building land was the smallest unit of independent possession before 1 950's. A flat is the smallest unit of independent possession since the law changes in 1 954 and 1 966. These legal settings supported to generalize build and sell housing production. The first law on forgiving squatter housing realized in 1948. After this beginning, forgiving is often repeated, thus squatter housing areas have been legalized and encouraged. Unbeing a mechanism to save and develop public lands have been helped to occupation easily. Cultural System is analyzed in chapter 2.1.3. Changes in family structure causes to increasing of the family numbers, so causes to increase housing need. Turkish society prefers large spaces and dwellings. It increases size and cost of buildings. On the other hand, people migrating from rural areas to urban areas have skill and culture self construction. This factor encouraged people for migration. Technological System is analyzed in chapter 2.1.4. Share of advanced housing production systems in Turkish housing production market is low. Reasons of this situation are general industrialization level of country, capital formation of housing firms, uncontinuity of demand. Advanced moulding systems are mostly used in advanced building technologies in Turkey. In chapter 2.2., housing production models which operates in legal market in Turkey, is elaborated. A housing production model comes to exist with combination of many different factors. In these factors, building land possession and development of building land values, urbanization rate, specialities of entrepreneurs in housing market, developments of building materials industry, interfere tendency of the State to this market, cultural skills and transforms of people and efficiency degree of political mechanisms can be allowed. Housing production models which operate in legal market in Turkey can be classified with ; - Individual housing production, - Private entrepreneurs housing production (build and sell), - Housing co-operatives housing production, - Private housing firms production, - Private sector-public sector joint venture production, - Public sector production. viii Individual housing production which is the first production model in history increases the work load of owner in modern times. This model uses resources unproductive because of the owner generally has not speciality. People which have rural oriented housing culture and have high income prefer this production model. Private entrepreneurs build and sell model was the most efficient production model which determines developing of the urban housing areas in urbanization process after 1945. Build and sell production firstly built and concentrated urban centers. Concentrated urban centers uncovered housing demand, so urban housing areas have had to decentralize. Build and sell housing production is realized 35% of total legal housing production in Turkey between the years 1950-80. A choice came to exist against build and sell production which is completed demolition-construction process at old prestigious urban areas at second half of T970's. The capital stock which can not be flown into industrial investments which are prevented by economical crisis at same period, passed to housing sector and private firms mass housing production concept began to develop. With the factors oriented mass housing scale, production motived to potential suburb areas. A series of mass housing project of Emlakbank have been begun to realize since 1980's. Contractor firms joints Emlakbank in these joint venture organizations at potential suburb areas again. Similar organizations are settlement projects wnich are directed by Mass Housing Administration. They are financed by public resources and constructed by big private firms. It is expected to build modern satellite towns. Co-operative housing production is elaborated in chapter 2.3. Concepts and principles of co-operative movement are in 2.3.1. According to International Co operatives Association principles of co-operative movement are; - Free entrance, - Democratic administration, - Limited interest rate to capital, ?- Risturn, - Development of co-operative education, - Cooperation with other co-operatives. A short history of co-operative movement is told. The first continuous co operative in the world is established by 28 poor weaver who are called Rochdale's Goodhearted Pioneers in 1 844. The first co-operative in Turkey is established as agricultural credit organization by Mithat Paşa in Pirot town. The first legal settings are established in 1 867. Memleket Sandıkları which is established by this IX law are transformed to Ziraat Bank in 1888. The first housing co-operative in Turkey is established in Istanbul by Englishmen in 1887. The first housing co-operative establishing by Turkish is Bahçeli Evler Yapı Kooperatifi which is established in Ankara in 1 934. Co-operatives are begun housing supply instrument for low income groups with planning periods in 1960's. Against Social Insurance Organization's housing credits, share of co-operative housing production is only 10% of total housing production in legal housing market since 1950's to early 1980's. The specialist academicians who are employed in municipalities after 1 973 local administration election, developed a brand new organization model. The first application of this model which is developed as cooperation of local administrations and housing co-operatives associations is begun in Ankara with Batikent name in 1978. Housing production is accelerated with Mass Housing Law in 1 984. Although this increase, many of the produced dwellings are second dwlling of one famih/ or summer house. This unproductive resource utilization continued between the years 1984-89. Success conditions of housing co-operatives are allowed with; - It must not aimed profit, - It must big enough to be used advantages of mass housing production, - Being of institutions which are supplied financial possibilities, - Organizing at regional country scale, - Local administration's building land, finance, substructure etc. support, - Cooperation with labour organizations, - Close and continuous control of State. Co-operative housing production system is defined as a process flow in chapter 2.3.3. Problems of operation in this model and solutions are also argued in this section. Accordig to this; - To prevent the anti propaganda which is realized by various individuals and institutions, - To supply the cheap building land, - To make modern improvement and living plans, - To develop co-operative managers' knowledge and skill level, - To solve the finance problem. Housing finance and cash flow planning are examined in chapter 3. In developing countries, industrialization is required to development and it is needed huge capital stock, urbanization is also required to development and needed capital. Thus, a problem comes to exist; insufficient capital stock. A number of results can be claimed at this point; x - Only people which are in need of housing can be made use of public resources, - To impose taxes to urban incomes in context of public advantage, thus to create new financial resources. Housing finance models are examined in chapter 3.1. People which are in need of housing are supported various institutions in the world. The supports are generally been with four ways; - Direct finance system, - Contract system, - Entrusted finance system, - Mortgage bank system. In Turkey, adding own resources to Mass Housing Fund credits is seemed that as convenient solution. But it must not to trust Mass Housing Fund credits which have untidy nature. Utilization of own resources has became importance at this point. Many of co-operative members have to exit from co-operatives because of increases of building costs. It is considered that to prevent this situation a time and cash flow planning which is suggested different alternatives to co-operative members. Cash flow planning is examined in chapter 3.2. General theory and importance in building construction issues are placed in this section. In chapter 4, cash planning which is supplied to continuity of membership as economical in housing co-operatives is elaborated. The approaches to continuity of membership is examined in 4.1. These are; - Constructing with several packets, - Reducing building costs, - Increasing construction time, - Pre-construction entrusting. An application on cash planning in housing co-operatives is placed in chapter 4.2. An apartment block with 72 flat which is placed in Halkalı settlement project. It is analyzed according to Quantity Surveying and construction time analyzed depended it. Three alternatives are considered as construction time. These are 15 months, 26 months and 36 months. Annual inflation is considered 60%. These data are operated with a project management software in micro computer. Results are showed in graphics. Different payment plans are suggested. Results and findings which are came to exist with this application are placed in chapter
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Bina bilgisi, Konut kooperatifleri, Nakit akışı, Building information, Housing cooperatives, Cash flow
Alıntı