İmar Planlarında Alınan Yeşil Alan Kararları Ve Uygulanabilirliği Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Kdz. Ereğli Örneği

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Tarih
1996
Yazarlar
Karakoç, Semiray
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu tezde, genel olarak yeşil alanlar ve imar planlarında alınan yeşil alan kararlan ile bu kararların uygulama sürecinde nasıl değerlendirildiği, örnek alan olarak seçilen Kdz. Ereğli kenti üzerinde incelenmiştir. Hızlı nüfus artışı, göç ve rant kavgasının doğurduğu çarpık ve düzensiz kentleşme, kentlerimizde zaten yeterli ölçüde bulunmayan yeşil alanlarımızın daha fazla tahrip olmasına neden olmuştur. Bunun sonucunda da, bir beton yığını görünümü kazanmış, yeşilden yoksun kentler ortaya çıkmıştır. Sağlığımız hava kirliliği, gürültü, dinlenme ortamının bulunmayışı ve bu faktörlerin insanlar üzerinde yarattığı psikolojik denge bozukluğunun etkisiyle tehlikeye girmektedir. Bu denli büyük öneme sahip yeşil alanlar, çağımız kent planlamalarında geniş kapsamlı bir planlama çerçevesinde ele alınarak, bir sistem içinde geliştirilmeli ve kentleşme olgularının hızına uyabilecek bir yeşil sistem yaratılmalıdır. Günümüz kentlerine baktığımızda; kişi başına düşen yeşil alan miktarının giderek azaldığını, varolan yeşil alanların kent içinde dengesiz dağıldığını, yeşil alanların işlevsel ve görsel etkinlik açısından yetersiz olduğunu, geleceğe yönelik belirgin ve güvenceli bir yeşil alan politikasının olmadığını görüyoruz. Ereğli, oldukça engebeli bir arazi üzerine yerleşmiştir. Ereğli Demir ve Çelik Tesisleri yani ERDEMİR bu dağlık ve engebeli arazi yapısı nedeniyle tarımın çok güç şartlarda yapılabildiği bölgede en büyük ve en önemli sanayi kuruluşlarının başmda gelir ve kent için önemi büyüktür. Bu çalışmada kent halkının, yeşil alanlara bakışı, kent içinde kullandıkları alanların belirlenmesi ve önerilere ışık tutması açısından, ihtiyaçlarının ortaya konması önemle üzerinde durulan konulardır. Bu ihtiyaçların belirlenmesinde, yetkililerle çeşitli mülakatlar ve anket çalışması yapılmıştır, örneklem büyüklüğü 500 kişi seçilmiştir. Mahallelerde yaşayan kişilerin eğitim ve gelir durumlarına göre yeşile bakışının farklılaştığı ve kullanımların değiştiği görülmektedir. Genelde fabrikada çalışan keşimin, her türlü faaliyete olanak verecek tesisleri olduğu için onlar açısından durum son derece güzel olmakla beraber, bu tesislerden yararlanamayan kesim, kentte park ve spor alanlarının olmayışından şikayet etmektedir. Aslında fabrika ve lojmanlarının bulunduğu alan Ereğli içinde her türlü sosyal ve kültürel ihtiyaçlara cevap verebilen ikinci bir kent görünümündedir. Dolayısıyla kentte yaşayan halk kesimleri arasındaki bu eşitsizliği ortadan kaldırmak için yerel yönetime büyük görevler düşmektedir.
An irregular and unplanned settlement due to rapid population growth, immigration and industrialization, caused invasion green-lands, which is already used to be short. These actors in turn caused our cities to become concrete monsters. The green lands allow recreation of the urban people both in active and passive ways. They also provide opportunies for the urban people to meet. They also play and important role in the mental and personal recreation of the urban people. With the technologial improvement in the 20th century, our health is under threat of population, noise and lack of recreational spaces. The technologial development creates a society that is stacked with psychologial and physical problems instead of the happy society which it had promised at the beginning. Therefore, the people of the period should prepeare more healthy living standarts to the future generations. Creating green lands in cities would be an important duty in solving the above given problems. Beside the possitive microclimatic effects posed by the green zones into the walled cities of today, the green zones, also clean the air, filter dust and reduce noise which all help the man to establish natural living conditions. The green zones having such a great importance, should be developed systematically within the urban planning in order to create green zones that will conform with the changes in the urban needs. As each city has different and peculiar features with regard to geography, climate and body, the standarts that will be utilized for recreation in a certain city would differ from that of tile others. The distribution of such green zones in the city depends on the population, settlement zones and density of utilization. Developing countries (such as Turkey) should produce positive and organized policies in order to protect their unique beauties. Stopping irregular and illegal urbanization, arrenging the zones where people carry out social and culturel activities and improving relations between such zones would only be provided by proper desing. In the properly desingn ed settlement zones, children will have oppotunities to find play as well as to enjoy large gardens, parks and play grounds which will allow them to have fun. The old will be able to use green zones to have fresh air and recreation. Play, sport and recreation grounds will become aesthetic and harmonious places wherein the environmental consciousness grow up. In line with the above given improvements, the transportation system will be designed so that it will response all needs of transportation as well as the facilities needed by play and sport grounds. Up to now, the developing countries could not avail the measures and solutions improved by developed countries to prevent loss of green land. The problems due to irrelevant design seem to increase day by day in the metropolitan cities of the developing countries making the life quite hard. The problems in relation with green lands are directly related with the planning isue. The environmental problems accompanying to those even threaten life. Urban planning is arranging happy living mediums. These problems, therefore, can be eliminated by a proper design. In Turkey, experts suggest 7m2 green land per capita to be considered as standart. However, the need to green land will increase simply with the increasing population which would pose a great problem to the cities with high population. Following the evalutions carried out for our cities, it has been found out that, - The green land rate per capita is decreasing day by day, - The existing green land is distributed unevenly, - The green land is insufficient with regard to function and visual attration, - There is no cretain or secure policy for the future In addition to the negative factors due to legislation, the municipalities have some management problems. These problems migth be listed as follows: - In sufficient organization, - The difficulties faced in appointing the rigth people to rigth place, - Lack of finance and time needed to complete infrastructure! factors such as preparing relevant maps. Due to above stated reasons, some municipalities do nothing while some others try partial solutions because of the increasing social pressure. These partial approches, that neglected laws add regulations in some causes, may be listed as follows: - Changing the design in the settlement zones caused the intensity to increase, - Construction plans that have adverse effects on the urban formation and functional relations The municipalities that are unsuccesful in creating the necessary organization, therefore, invest finance in their hand to attractive superstructuring. XI Some municipalities that used up their resorces in such investments, oup to use the land under their ownership inorder to earn money while some others opt to create illegal resources using the power in their hand. Such partial approaches, in most cases, serve the interests of the dominant groups causing the negligence of the rigts of the remaining population and the planning organizations to become unrespected bodies. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate Kdz. Ereğli study with regard to the problems faced at the design stage. Ereğli is settled on a broken ground. Though it was settled at the valleys intersecting the slope after the established of the industrial plants. Ereğli Iron and Steel Factory (i.e. ERDEMÎR) is the oldest of the industrial plants in the zone where agriculturing is quite difficult due to its slopped structure so it has more importance for Ereğli. The first urban design for Ereğli was made in 1949 but, as a new design was needed, the municipality had anew design made in 1964 to prepare the city for 1980. As ERDEMİR expanded more than expected, a new revision and extension was needed. Therefore, in 1974, the plan was restored. Ereğli has an intense vegetation due to its warm and rainly climate but the city has no arrenged active green land other than the shoreline. The main reason for this is that the lands which were allocated as green lands (such as parks, play and sport grounds) in construction plans are owned by private persons and the budget of the municipality falls short to provide finance for publicizing these lands. Further, the municipality does not have experienced personnel. Therefore, the allocation of green land could not be made. Within this study, the view of the people in Ereğli for green lands, te allocation of green land within the city and determining the needs of the people are evaluated as important factors. In order to find out these needs, inquiries were made in coordination with the municipal authorities. 500 persons were interviewed. In order to provide accuracy, the number of inquiries to be made in each quarter was determined considering the population. People's ideas for green was found to depend on their education and income levels. As the workers of the ERDEMÎR plant have all facilities that would allow them to recreate, they have no complaint. Nevertheless, the people living in the city complain lack of parks and sport facilities. In fact, the plant facilities where the plant and the living quarters are located, look like an other city. The municipality is therefore obliged to stabilize the standarts which differ between the living zones. The need to green land can not be satisfied effectively without and environmental consciousness. The economic and social conditions imposd by the illegal and irregular urbanization make the population insensitive for the environment. The governments and municipalities, being obliged to create basis for improving the consciousness, are first degree responsible. In addition to that, the officials of the educational institutions and press are also obliged to improve environmental consciousness. The importance of this consciousness, however, is not given the value it desevers. The people who settled in the city for a long time, under the pressure of economic and social conditions, invade the green land within the city to build reinforced concrete buildings, skyscraoers, business centers and housing zones. This causes the people to loose their envionmental consciousness. One of the purposes of this thesis is to contribute to the studies aiming to increase the environmental consciousness and to emphasize the importance and influence of green land on our lives. Within the inquiries conducted for that purpose, the importance of public relations was highlighted in order to increase ebvironmental consciousness anyhow.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Yeşil alanlar, Zonguldak-Ereğli, İmar planları, Green areas, Zonguldak-Ereğli, Zoning plans
Alıntı