Bursa Deliballılar Köyü sit Koruma Projesi: Koruma Çalışmaları İçin Ön Koşul Ve İlkelerin Araştırılması

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Tarih
2015-02-09
Yazarlar
Güneş, Zahide Sena
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Bu tez kapsamında Deliballılar Köyü, kentsel koruma çerçevesinde incelenmiştir. Bu inceleme sekiz ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, bölgenin önemi vurgulanarak yapılan çalışmanın kapsamından bahsedilmiştir. İkinci ve üçüncü bölümler, bölgenin coğrafi konumunu tanımlamaya çalışırken, tarihsel gelişimi ve sosyo-kültürel yapısı hakkında bilgi vermektedir. Deliballılar Köyü, Bursa İli’nin Orhaneli İlçesi’ne bağlı eski tarihli köylerden biridir. Köyün tarihsel süreçteki gelişimi Orhaneli ile paralellik göstermektedir. Uludağ’ın güney yamacında bulunan köy için net bir iklimden bahsedilemez, iklimi ılıman akdeniz ve karasal ege ile marmara bölgesi iklimlerinin karışımıdır. Ekonomik yapı tarıma dayalıdır. Ancak yakın çevrede kurulan fabrikalar, termik santral ve köyde taşımalı eğitim yapılmasından dolayı köyün nüfusu ciddi oranda azalmış, ekonomik faaliyetler sekteye uğramıştır. Deliballılar Köyü’nün kentsel doku özellikleri ve sivil mimarlık örnekleri, dördüncü bölümün inceleme konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Deliballılar Köyü, köy meydanındaki okulu, muhtarlık/kahvehane binası, köy meydanının güneyinde bulunan camisi ve köyün doğu çeperinde yer alan tarihi meşe ağacı ile geleneksel Anadolu köylerinden ayrılsa da, köy meydanının etrafında şekillenen geleneksel sivil mimarlık örneklerinin oluşturduğu dokusuyla Anadolu’nun bir parçasıdır. İncelemenin beşinci bölümünde, hazırlanan 1/1000 ölçekli analizler değerlendirilmiş ve tablolarla ifade edilmiştir. Bu tablolardan elde edilen veriler ve gözlemler ışığında dokuyu tehdit eden etkenler altıncı bölümde ele alınmıştır. Deliballılar Köyü ile ilgili geçmiş yıllarda yapılan imar planı çalışmalarına ve tabiat varlıklarının korunmasına yönelik kararlara bakıldığında, 2009 yılında Deliballılar Köyü’nde tek yapı ölçeğinde tescil tespit çalışması yapıldığı ve Kentsel Sit Alanı sınırının belirlendiği görülmektedir.ancak henüz Deliballılar Köyü Sit Koruma Alanı için Koruma Amaçlı İmar Planı yapılmamıştır. Bu durumla ilgili olarak, yedinci bölümde, alan çalışması sonucunda hazırlanan 1/1000 ölçekli analiz ve öneri paftaları, 1/200 plan ve cephe paftaları paralelinde belirlenen koruma kararları, müdahale ve işlevlendirme önerileri geliştirilerek, bölge ile ilgili tarıma dayalı ekonomik canlanmayı amaçlayan bir plan kurgulanmıştır. Bu sayede Deliballılar Köyü kentsel doku ve sivil mimarlık örneklerinin yok olma tehlikesinden uzak bir şekilde gelecek nesillere aktarılması için izlenmesi gereken yolun belirlenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Sekizinci bölüme gelindiğinde, tez kapsamında yapılan çalışmalardan elde edilen sonuçlar açıklanmıştır.
This thesis is involved with the analysis of Deliballılar Village within urban conservation aspects and the analysis consists of 8 sections. The first section emphasizes the importance of the region and mentions about the the borders of investigation. In the second section, the geographical location of the Orhaneli is described, the historical background and socio-cultural structure are instructed. Deliballılar Village is a part of Orhaneli District and there are not many written sources about the village. To understand the geographical location and the history of the village, it is better to give detailed information about Orhaneli. The foundation of Orhaneli, starts with Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus(76-138), who is the emperor of Roman Empire. The name of Orhaneli has been Atranos before 1934, pointer of the dedication of the region to Hadrianus. Orhan Bey, the son of Osman Bey, conquered Orhaneli in 1325. Orhaneli is located on the south side of Uludağ and the climate possess temperate Akdeniz climate with the effects of the continental climate of Ege and Marmara. The vegetation of Uludağ and Orhaneli consists of a forest, which contains pine, oak, juniper and beech trees. Orhaneli Region is a fertile area for minerals including chromium, nickel, lignite coal, magnesite, manganese, asbestos and some limestone types. The local economy is based on agricultural activities, like farming and livestock, trading and thermal power plant. In the third section, the geographical location of Deliballılar Village is described, the historical background and socio-cultural structure are instructed. The foundation of the Delibalılar Village is unknown, however the name of the village is seen in a ledger of Atranos town of Ottoman Empire from the year of 1530. Deliballılar Village was registered with 54 dwelling houses in yearbook of 1908 and the name of the village is not on the list of The Greek Tragedy. The village is located near to Orhaneli Town, on the south side of Uludağ and the climate possess temperate Akdeniz climate with the effects of the continental climate of Ege and Marmara, however, the climate temperature values are higher than Orhaneli. The vegetation of Deliballılar Village consists of a forest, which contains pine, oak, juniper and beech trees. The local economy is totally based on agricultural activities, like farming and livestock. The urban texture and examples regarding civil architecture are covered in Section 4. The hills which are located around the settlement, the forest which covers the hills and the roads describes the general landscape of Deliballılar Village. The road which is from Orhaneli to Deliballılar Village direction goes beyond to the village side with a bridge which crosses over Kocasu River. The main roads reach the west border of the village and the roads merge and continue through the south border to the east exit. As a typical village settlement, the inside streets of Deliballılar Village show organic form. The public square of the village is surrounded by the primary school building in Early Republic Period Style, government building and other historical traditional dwelling houses. There are two short and narrow roads from square to the courtyard of the mosque. The urban texture of Deliballılar is shaped around the public square like other Anatolian villages. The location of the primary school, which is on the border of the public square and the location of the monumental oak tree, which is on the east edge of the village differ from  typical traditional Anatolian villages. Agricultural activities are the essential parts of economical life in the village. Buildings are situated alone on the parcels and a large garden left around the buildings as private green areas. Some gardens include greenhouses which have metal structures to grow more various plants. In the area, there are single-floored hayloft buildings except dwelling houses. In Section 5, the existing 1/1000 scale plans are analyzed in detail. The number of floors, functions of buildings, building materials and systems, structural condition, the conservation condition and the usage of buildings have been analyzed and evaluated. The number of floors analysis shows that the two-floored buildings have 60,9% rate in the area. The most of the buildings(52,7%) have the dwelling function. Traditional building system is masonry stone ground floors and timber framework upper floors. The building materials and systems analysis  shows that the 55,2% rated buildings of the area have been built with both masonry and framework systems. The structural conditions of the buildings are good with 88,7% rate and the conservation conditions are “good” in 45,7% rate. 40,7% of the buildings have continuous usage, 21,1% of them have periodical usage and 38,0% of the buildings are not in use. The changes in historical texture and the impact of these changes upon urban texture and architecture are covered in Section 6. Because of the decreasing population of the village, the texture of Deliballılar Village is preserved from serious changes and deterioration. Although the texture is preserved, many changes in plan scheme can be seen in order to reach the comfort of today’s conditions. The changes upon urban texture occur generally as concrete wet area additions. The changes upon buildings occur as alterations of plan schemes, revisions of original door and window frames, usages of modern building materials. When the decisions regarding conservation of cultural and natural themes and reconstruction plans are examined, it is found that 53 buildings and one oak tree have been recorded as cultural and natural properties in 2009. However, a reconstruction plan for conservative purposes has not been prepared for the Deliballılar Village yet. According to this, a field study has been made and the conservation rules and regulations set regarding the 1/1000 scale analysis in Section 7. 1/100 scale plans and façades of sixteen dwelling houses are drawn, analyzed and compared during the field study. The purposes of the present study are not only to express methods for preservation of the urban texture and civil architecture for the future generations but also to increase population of the settlement as before it was by agricultural economical regulation advices. The advices about urban texture are in a rehabilitation concept to attract previous users. The decisions about transportation and urban furnitures aim to arrange the inner and outer streets and routes and also to make an easier accessibility to Deliballılar Village. The decisions about agricultural activities aim to develop those original economical activities. The support of the Bursa City Government is predicted for production and marketing regulations. The advices about rehabilitation and transportation are explained in a selected part of the urban conservation area. The predicted interventions for buildings are expanded. The results of the study are presented in Section 8. The locations of buildings are expressed, the traditional plan schemes and façade properties are described in detail. Types of buildings are explained in another paragraph in Section 8. The results of analysis are emphasized as the reasons of intervention decisions. The primary problem of Deliballılar Village is decreasing population.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Bursa, Orhaneli, Deliballılar, Köy, Uludağ, Sit, Koruma, Bursa, Orhaneli, Deliballılar, Village, Uludag, Conservation
Alıntı