T.C. Ziraat Bankası Karaköy İstanbul hizmet binası restorasyon projesi

dc.contributor.advisor Ahunbay, Zeynep
dc.contributor.author Ergin, Ahmet Tunç
dc.contributor.authorID 39473
dc.contributor.department Restorasyon
dc.date.accessioned 2023-02-24T10:58:00Z
dc.date.available 2023-02-24T10:58:00Z
dc.date.issued 1994
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994 tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Türkçe özet Bu tez çalışmasında İ. T. Ü. Döner Sermaye İşletmesi kapsamında daha önce bir rölövesi yapılmış bulunan T, C. Ziraat Bankası İstanbul Hizmet binası restorasyon projesinin hazırlanması konu olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu çalışma günümüzde halen kullanılmakta olan 19. veya 20. yüzyıl başlangıcı yapılarından birinin iyileştirilerek çağın isteklerine cevap verebilir bir yapı haline getirilmesini temel hedef olarak seçmiştir. Ele alınan yapının da bu temel amaca uygunluk göstermesi ile birlikte projenin uygulanma ihtimalinin de bulunması çalışmanın dikkat çekici bir noktasını oluşturmaktadır. Tez çalışmasının ayrıntılı temel fikir ve amaçları ile bu çalışmanın hangi ilke ve yöntemlerle gerçekleştirileceği tezin ilk bölümünde ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın devamında ilk olarak yapının bulunduğu semt olan Galata ve üst bölge Beyoğlu'nun tarih içindeki gelişimi günümüze kadar gelen bir süreçte incelenmiştir. Aynı bölümde yapının bir banka binası olması ve şimdiye kadarki kullanıcılarının hep banka kuruluşları olması nedeniyle Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Cumhuriyet döneminin bankacılığının da Ziraat Bankası'nın tarihçesi ile birlikte incelenmesi gerekli görülmüştür. Bu genel araştırmalardan sonra 19. ve 20. yüzyıl Avrupa mimarisi ve özellikle Viyana mimarisi yapının bir Avusturya bankasınca inşa ettirildiğine inanıldığı için incelemeye alınmıştır. Dönem mimarisinin Avrupa'daki ürünleri izlendikten sonra aynı araştırmayı Osmanlı İstanbul mimarisi için de yapmak binanın yapıldığı tarihteki mimari ortamın anlaşılması açısından önem taşımaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak gerek Avrupa'da gerekse Osmanlılar'da aynı tip yapıların mimarilerinin incelenmesi ise yapının özgün işlevsel şemasının ortaya konması için gerekli görülmüştür. Yapının halk arasında bir mason yapısı olduğu söylentisi nedeniyle mimarlığın masonlukla olan ilişkisini ortaya koyan bir ön araştırma bölümü de çalışmaya eklenmiştir. Çalışmalar yapı ölçeğine indirildiğinde ise ilk olarak binanın ve yakın çevresini oluşturan Karaköy meydanı yapılarının 19. yüzyıldan günümüze kadar süre gelen bir zaman dilimde incelemesi gerçekleştirildi. Yapı içine girildiğinde öncelikle yapı planını oluşturan mekanların bugünkü tanımı malzemesinden boyutlarına ve işlevine kadar yapılarak çalışmaya katıldı. Aynı şekilde yapının dış cepheleri de mimari üslup ağırlıklı olarak değerlendirilerek yapının fiziksel durumunun ortaya konması için bina yapı elemanları ile beraber elemanlarda ve genelde görülen çeşitli bozulmaların da tespitine gidildi. Yapının günümüzdeki tanımını izleyerek İstanbul'daki benzer banka yapılarıyla bir karşılaştırma bölümü eldeki eski fotoğraflarla beraber yapının tespit edilebilen ilk halinin ortaya konması çalışmalarını konu alan restitüsyon bölümüne ışık tutacak şekilde gerçekleştirildi. Daha sonra çalışma başında aktarılan temel düşünceler eşliğinde yapının günümüz bankacılık ihtiyaçlarına cevap verebilmesi için en uygun görülen işlevsel ve fiziki yenileme önerileri çalışma sırasında ve sonrasında gerekli olabilecek ek önerilerle birlikte projeye eklenerek çalışma sonuçlandırıldı. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract The subject of this thesis is the restoration project of an old bank building from the beginning of this century. The building is situated at Karaköy, Istanbul and on the north coast of the Golden Horn. The building can easily be seen on the east side, if the Galata bridge is passed from Eminönü to Karaköy. The building is still being used as a bank branch today. The buildings owner, "Türkiye Ziraat Bankası" is not using the bank building only as a simple branch but a service center that serves all the bank's branches in Istanbul. Before the decision of the building to realize the study, the basic aim of this thesis was to restore a carelessly used and old but strong building in Istanbul from the end of the 19th century. The Galata neighborhood of the city has been chosen as a center for the thesis study, because many samples of carelessly used buildings can be found in this area. Meanwhile the restoration project of the "Türkiye Ziraat Bankası" Istanbul Service Building in Karaköy was requested from the Istanbul Technical University. The survey of the building had been drawn in 1991 by the Photogrammetrie Department of the same university. Also the realization probability of the project was an important reason to choose the building as the subject for a thesis. So the detailed basic aims and purposes of the thesis are presented in the first chapter of the study. The methods that have been used during the research and the sequence of the presentation have also been in this chapter. The historical development of Karaköy which is part of Galata is given in the first part of the second chapter. In this part the changes in the social, economical and physical condition of the district are examined. Especially the 19th conditions took a large place in this examination. At the end of this part the chaotic state of todays Galata is described, too. In the same chapter the history of the banking in Ottoman-Empire have been studied. As the Ottoman banking has been developed centuries later than the European countries the history of banking in the Ottoman-Empire goes back to the middle of the 19th century. The reason of this late development was the stockbrokers who had an important place in the economical life of the Ottoman-Empire. After a short period in the Ottoman-Empire banking history the founding of the "Türkiye Ziraat Bankası" foundation, the present owner of the building can be observed. Therefore some general information about the founding of the building's owner foundation has been included in this chapter, too. XVI 11 The following third chapter is a general introduction which explains the state architecture in Europe and Ottoman-Empire during the 19-20th century. As known, that the 19-20th centuries have been the period of differences and confusion in all European countries. So the architects have designed buildings under the influence of the architectural style "Classicism" until mid 19th century. But in the second part of the century, the architecture could not adapt itself to the social and industrial revolution in Europe. So the second half of the 19 th century has been the period of revivals in the European Architecture. Instead of creating new styles, it was preferred to copy from the past. This is also called the period of "Historicism" or more generally "Eclecticism" which can bee seen specially at the facades of the buildings of this period. The beginning of the 20 th century has been a birth of a reform with the "Modern Style or Style Liberty" (Art Nouveau) in architecture. This reform ended with "Modern Architectural Style". The following part of this chapter is about the architecture in Vienna during the second half of the 19th century. As the bank building is constructed at the beginning of this century, most probably by an Austrian Bank Foundation, "Wiener Bank Verein", it was necessary to examine the architectural style "Gründerzeit" at the capital city of Austria. This style which can be translated to English like the "Founding Period" developed as a reaction to the architectural styles that preferred to copy from history. 19th century; the last days of the Ottoman-Empire have been a time of serious economic and social decline. This reality has caused an architecture in the Ottoman-Empire which developed under the influence of Europe. Therefore many different architectural styles have been used on the Ottoman buildings of this period especially at the facades. In this period, many of the decorative elements which copied from the past architectural styles have been used by foreign or Ottoman architects in the capital city Istanbul. But after a short time, this eclectic style has been directed towards the eastern architectural styles and the first Ottoman revival architecture has appeared. The bank branches represent a special building type in the history of architecture. They have been developed parallel to the development in banking and the following part in the same chapter covers the analysis of bank buildings during the 19th century. The early bank buildings have been designed and built for merchants and stockbrokers as exchanges in the 14 th century. These buildings looked like a commercial shops. And after a short time the living places of the owners have been added to the plan of the bank buildings. So until the 18 th century, the bank buildings have been designed like private mansions. But the appearance of the first public bank foundation has brought to light the beginning of the bank branch building type with the banking hall which can still be seen in this century. So the first real bank buildings were seen in the architecture of the 19th century. Meanwhile during the history of bank building types, the changing architectural styles according to the period influenced the facades and decoration of the banks. xix Banking in the Ottoman-Empire started later then the European banking. The first bank buildings in Istanbul appeared in the 19th century. The street named "Bankalar Caddesi" in Galata is the place, where many of those samples can be found. Following the examination of the bank buildings in Europe, the Ottoman samples dated to the end of 19th or beginning of the 20th century have been examined in the same chapter. During the historical research, it was discovered that the bank building has some decorative elements on its facades related to the Freemasonry. So the study about the history of the Freemasonry revealed some symbolic relations with architecture. It was decided to compare the results of this examination and the buildings facades at the end of the next chapter, which contains the description of the building. The fourth chapter is about the bank building itself. The location, history, a general as well as a detailed description and information of the building is given here. Firstly, the description of the bank building's closed environment is explained at a time period beginning from the end of the 15th century until today. A lot of old maps or photographs dating from the 19th or 20th centuries are used for this definition. Research was enlucked about the important buildings in the neighborhood. Also it is understood that the bank building has been built on a parcel which was gained by filling the sea some centuries ago. As a result, the changing city structure and todays city structure around the building at Karaköy defined in this first part of the fourth chapter. The next part contains a short history of the bank building. It is observed from some old photographs that the building is constructed between the years 1910 and 1912. This construction date has been also verified in a article about the building taken from a magazine. Some exterior photographs of the building taken just after the construction can be seen here, too. The different users of the building beginning from the first owner "Wiener Bank-Verein" until the last "T. C. Ziraat Bankası" are mentioned in the history of the bank building. Unfortunately the name of the architect could not be found. The bank building has a rectangular plan which becomes narrower towards the northeast. The reason of this narrowing is the parcel on which the building has been built. The five storey high building has three facades. The fourth side of the bank is next to the neighbor building. The first facade facing the sea has a large terrace above the second storey where the two famous statues of the building stand. The second facade is facing the Karaköy square. The rear facade is facing a pedestrian square beside the Karaköy square and the details of this facades are simpler than the others. xx The bank is a six story building. The basement floor is a cellar where the original strongrooms and enginerooms are. The second ground floor appears as the entrance and the banking hall and this floor is normally above the groundlevel. The following third floor is a mezzanine in connection with the ground floor. On the other three upper floors there are the management offices of the bank. The more detailed design principles of the building are also given in detail in the "Plan Definition" part. After the general "Plan Definition", the covering materials which are still found within the building are made clear by the examination of the plan. Also the measures or the functions of the rooms are given. The original places of the buildings also can be found in this examination part. The description of the facades are presented in two stages. First, each facade of the building is described under its general design principle. The extreme use of the decorative elements on the facades required detailed analysis for each of them. So each decorative element is described, as much as it was possible to observe. After the description, the meanings of the elements are explained within the context of the architectural history. In this case the relation of the decorative elements with the Freemasonry have been explained in the same part, too. The general construction materials, elements, and system of the building could be examined again as it is observed. First of all it has been decided that the building has been built with reinforced concrete construction system. This can be very easily understood from the inner supporting members or the floor system. But it is also possible that the outside walls have been made of brick. The other elements like doors, stairs, roof, windows, floors and some original furnitures have been investigated and examined in this general construction researches. The description of the original remaining rooms or spaces like the management offices in the third floor and the strongrooms at the basement were described with in the same chapter. The last part of this chapter consists of the three types of damages which can be seen on the building. First the building has some interior construction damages caused of the problems by the ground. And the building is a little bit settled and bent down towards the sea which can not bee seen by the naked eye. The second damage can be seen by materials. Because of a careless and unsuccessful renovation construction in 1975 just all inner materials of the building have been changed. Within this context the damages on the outer facade materials are mentioned which are many times painted and are mostly cracked. The last damages are caused by the users and the environment. Specially the additional building and renovation construction in 1975 has brought a functional and large material damage to the building. The users of the building are not pleased with many of these materials, too. The damages of the increase in the population of the area and vehicle traffic will be seen in the close future. xxi The fifth chapter is a comparative study about the 19th century bank buildings. The chapter begins with the examination of the design principles. The general plan type or the facade order of the building is presented in the this part. The chapter also contains discussions about the structural order, construction technique and the materials of the building. Also these studies were carried out in a comparative method including the other 19th century bank buildings. The restitution proposal for the bank is presented in the sixth chapter. Insufficient documentation about the other 19 th century bank buildings in Istanbul prevents the realization of a more detailed work. So only some old interior and exterior photographs of the building helped to the study in the restitution of the first building. Unfortunately due to lack of sufficient number of photographs it was not possible to establish a complete restitution drawing set. Also some observations in todays bank building helped to improve the restitution drawings. The restitution chapter includes the plan and facade restitution. The plan restitution is first realized as functional. And the original use of the rooms are determined by this work. Meanwhile the furnitures and the decorative elements of the rooms are explained in the same study. This chapter ends with the facade restitution. It is decided that there is not any important change on the facades. The proposed restoration works for the building are explaining in the following chapter. The building will go on to be used as a bank branch together with the neighboring addition. The changing banking needs of the 21st. century, the todays bank branches functional plan and the original functional plan of the building is shaped the study. Finally a new proposal is developed for the building. While the application of this new project some restoration techniques will be necessary for the repair of the building. And the following restoration techniques are suggested and explained detailed at the end of the study. -Consolidation -Reintegration -Cleaning -Renovation -Contemporary addition In the last chapter a general judgement and discussion of the study is made. The realized and unrealized aims are defined. With some personal suggestions and ideas about the project, the study is came to a conclusion. The project aims to be an example of the renovation of buildings from 19th century to match the living standards of today. In addition, as the building is an outstanding figure on the coast of Golden Horn, the project will be a pioneer to the new projects to follow. en_US
dc.description.degree Yüksek Lisans
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/21912
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Restorasyon tr_TR
dc.subject Ziraat Bankası tr_TR
dc.subject İstanbul-Karaköy tr_TR
dc.subject Restoration en_US
dc.subject Ziraat Bank en_US
dc.subject İstanbul-Karaköy en_US
dc.title T.C. Ziraat Bankası Karaköy İstanbul hizmet binası restorasyon projesi tr_TR
dc.title.alternative The Restoration project of the Türkiye Ziraat Bankası İstanbul service building in Karaköy en_US
dc.type masterThesis en_US
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