Tekstil sektöründe toplam kalite yönetim modeli ve kalite sistem dökümantasyonu

Uzun, Uğur
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada; Toplam Kalite Felsefesi, Toplam Kalite Yönetim Modeli, ISO 9000 Kalite Güvence Dokümantasyon Sistemi üzerinde durulmuştur. Birinci bölümde; kalite kavramının tarihsel süreç içerisinde dünyada ve ülkemizdeki gelişimi, kaliteyi etkileyen temel faktörler araştırılmış, Toplam Kalite Felsefesi belli başlı dayanakları ile açıklanmıştır. ikinci bölümde; EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management - Avrupa Kalite Yönetimi Kuruluşu) kriterleri baz alınarak Toplam Kalite Yönetim Modeli alt modülleri ile birlikte incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde; Toplam Kalite'ye ulaşma yolunda önemli bir araç olan ISO 9000 Kalite Güvence Sistemi ve Dokümantasyonu tanıtılmış, tüm alt modülleri bazında gereklilikleri ile birlikte anlatılmış, sistemin kurulum ve işletim aşamasında yaşanan güçlüklerden, getiri ve götürülerinden bahsedilmiş ve son olarak tekstil sektöründe faaliyet gösteren bir kuruluşta gerçekleştirilmiş uygulaması verilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonunda Toplam Kalite Yönetim Modeli'ni bir yönetim rotası olarak benimsemiş, kalite sistemini kurmayı amaçlayan kuruluşlara öneriler yer almaktadır.
First recording of quailty had been written at B.C.2150. The 229. item of famous laws of Hammurabi was; "If a building built by a constructor causes to a death that constructor had been died by cutting his head". Perhaps, this is the first law to protect right of customer. Phoenicians had also affective restrictions. When a Phoenician auditor had determined a difference of quality standart, he had right to cut hand of manufacturer. System had based on control of customer. A man who was purchasing goods was controlling goods by touching and seeing or was purchaising goods regarding to fame of manufacturer. Then, guilds had been established by manufacturer whose had manufactured some products. The establishing of guilds, perhaps, had formed first step of standardization. Guilds, developed specifications of raw material, processes, products had forced their members to use those specifications and had taken responsibility of quality control. Existing of quality as a concept was 19.century. In these years and after, manufacturers had prided to print their label on their products. While work planning was done by worker and foreman, in England, Frederick Taylor had given the control to Industrial Engineerings and so, the base of industrial revolution had been formed by this application. If we review affects of the ll.Worid War on quality, we notice that workings and applications has begun at this term and end of it. Reality of quality had been marked after this term in developed and developing countries and had been the same target by all countries. It is real that the ll.Worid War had been quicked developing of quality technology. In this term, unsuccessfulness of quality had been caused a lot of deaths and defeats at some fronts and seemed that the method of 100 percent inspection was not convinient solution to not bommed torpedo and bomb. The schedule of taking sample developed by Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Roming had eliminatedresponsibility of 100 percent control, and had simplified the statistic of taking sample. In the years of war, in USA, technology of quality control had been commoned in every where of USA and the most of secret technology and ways of industrial foundations were unsecret. In 1946, by the establishing of American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), the most convenient environment had been existed for improving of basis quality concepts. In early 1950's, Dr.Armand Feigenbaum and his team had improved a quality cost system. The system had added some new terms, such as protective costs, estimative costs, internal-external unsuccesfulness costs into the literary of quality specialistes had gain possibility to express their ideas by the language of economy with top managers. The war of Korea and the increasing of space workings had again fasted of the developing of quality. In 1950's, was a term in which quality regulations of products had been increased. The concept of "Quality Insurance in Serving Industry" had been shaped in this term. In 1961, Philip Crosby had improved the concept of "Zero Fault". At the end of 1960's, the improving of quality technology and increasing of computer technology had been effected as possible to quality insurance. 1980's had carried up quality from the base of manufacturing to management offices. Quality had suddenly been a marketing gun and top managers had noticed that customer was ready to pay much more money for the product those has top quality in every where of the world. In 1970's, manufacturer was interesting with the product safety, product responsibiliy and restriction of state and compeptition of price instead of quality, through the 1980's the competition of Japan quality had been felt as much. And this condition had been increased of importance of quality in USA. In Japan, the base of manufacturing industry had been established between the years of 1960 and 1970. It was however about 40 years laters than USA,. Japan is the number one in the world of the sectors of electronic, laser, software, computer and comminication system. It is about 125 years that Japan had taken up technology than Europe the first 100 years were not successful but last 25 years XIwere full of success. The mass production had been great advantage for Japan after than USA and Europe. Japan had been analized industy of other developed countries and established very quality industry. The behaviour type of Japan firms are very different than America's and Europe's. It can be said that economical and human resources are the administrative source of the firm. Human resources are always the first important thing in Japan firms. After the the II. World War, Japans had not any naturel source, there was only human source and they had imported the educated men. Therefore it was the most important factor of successfulness of Japan. The followings are secret of Japan; - human - high technology - system Total Quality Management is the best system for firms to be reached their aims. Every firms have their own aims. It is common that developing, profitablety and competiblety are the same aims of every firm and the model of Total Quality Management is a game to play which is necessary. So that, firm are to be updated their conditions against of the changing conditions of trade world. The first basic point of Total Quality Management is that top managers had understood it. This the most effective factor on the time to reach the aims. Whole managers must always approach to the phylasophy of Quality Control at two dimension (Figure 1). For the customer satisfaction, people satifaction and good impact on society, excellence of the business results, it must neccessary to management and direct of policies and strategies, people, resources and processes in a appropriate leadership ( Figure 2). A firm can be used the every nine elements those are in the model, as a basic criter in the application of Total Quality Management to see how much it is successful. XUFigure 1. Two dimensions of Total Quality Managemenet Business Results %15 ENABLERS %50 RESULTS %50 Figure 2. Total Quality Management Model X1UOne of the most important tool is quality assurance system for Total Quality Management in the firm. ISO 9000 Quality Systems is the most common quality system. ISO 9000 is model that can be used as a basic model for the improving a appropriate assurance system of the conditions of a firm and/or the comparison quality system of a organization. Appropriating to this model is to mean that a company has a appropriate and international quality system accepted by the developed countries. The model is expressed a management system which is supply tools for the management of quality. On the other hand, this model is supplied the followings: - decreasing of costs, - improving of total effectiveness of organization and management control, - better product design, - decreasing waste - decreasing on customer claims, - increasing on productivity, - improving on relation between employee and employer, - people satisfaction, - establishing of quality culture, - increasing image and credit of company. The series of ISO 9000 are the following: Number of neccessaries are different from each other for every standart, but the followings are the same: - principal of quality management system, - suppliying of customer necessarries, - controlling on external factors, - controlling on internal factors, - proving appropriation - protecting product/service quality - training XIVTS-ISO 9001: Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation and Servicing It is expressed about design, production, installation and service neccessaries of a company. If one or more elements are not included in the function of company, this condition must be remarked in quality manual handbook. ISO 9001 is also applied for the serving organizations standart is depend on function of company, not volume of company. Entegrated textile companies those are manufacturing products from raw material to product, serving to customer, can be certificated regarding to ISO 9001. TS-ISO 9002: Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation and Servicing It is much more appropriate for the companies those are manufacturing on the line of designs those are especially formed and approved at the beginning. Design modul is included in ISO 9001, not in ISO 9002.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
ISO 9000, Kalite güvence sistemi, Tekstil sektörü, Toplam kalite yönetimi, Quality assurance system, Textile sector, Total quality management