Arnavutköy Tarihi Dokusu İçinde Yer Alan Bir Yapı Adasının Ve Bu Adadaki Ahşap Bir Konutun Sıhhileştirilmesi Önerisi

Sözen, Ekrem
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
"Amavutköy tarihi dokusu içinde yer alan bir yapı adasının ve bu adadaki ahşap bir konutun sıhhileştirilmesi önerisi "adını taşıyan bu tezin birinci bölümü girişi içermekte ve bu bölümde, 19. yüzyılda Boğaziçi'nde sivil mimarlık ve sosyal yaşamdan sözedil mektedir. ikinci bölümde ise, Amavutköy'ün tarihi gelişimi ele alınmakta ve günümüze kadar geçirdiği evreler incelenmektedir. Yöredeki sosyal yapılanmanın yer aldığı üçüncü bölümü, fiziksel yapılanmanın ayrıntılı olarak incelendiği dördüncü bölüm İzlemektedir. Bu bölümün alt bölümlerinde dinsel yapılar, kamu yapılan, sivil mimarlık örnekleri teker teker ele alınmaktadır. Amavutköy'deki tarihi çevre özellikleri başlıklı beşinci bölümde ise sokak oluşumları, sıraevler, cephe düzenleri gibi konulara değinilmektedir. Bu bölümü izleyen altıncı bö lümde, yöredeki yeni yapılanma ve değişim süreci ile ilgili inceleme ve tespitler yer al maktadır. Yedinci bölümünde, Arnavutköy'de bugüne kadar yapılmış koruma uygulamalarına ilişkin gelişmeler ele alınmaktadır. Bu bölümün ardından, "Arnavutköy tarifti dokusu içinde yer alan bir yapı adasının incelenmesi" başlıklı sekizinci bölüm gelmektedir. Bu incelemede söz konusu alanı oluşturan yapıların kat adedi, yapım sistemi ve malzemeleri, işlevleri, korunmuşluk durumları, tespit ve tescil durumları incelenmektedir. Ayrıca bu yapıların pencere kapı düzeni, çıkma düzeni, çatı ve saçak düzeni, cephe düzeni gibi tipolojik özellikleri ele alınmaktadır. Bu tespitlerle fiziksel mekana ilişkin sorunlar saptanmakla ve bunlara yönelik çözümler üretilmektedir. Dokuzuncu bölümde ise, Abdülhak Molla Sokağı'ndaki, 12 numaralı köşe parselde yer alan ahşap bir konutun restorasyonu ele alınmaktadır. Aynntılı bir rölövesi ve tanımı yapılan yapının restitüsyonu ile ilgili çalışmaların ardın dan, bu yapının restorasyonu için gerekli müdahale tipleri ve öngörülen yeni işlev ile ilgili öneriler geliştirilmektedir.
In my opinion, it would be appropriate to start this summary by referring to the rapid social, cultural and economical developments that took place in the last decade. The reason for that is alteration and it is inevitable. It has changed the outlook of communities, as a result this is reflected on all works of our lives. The base point is alteration that this study deals with the preservation and protection of the cultural, social and architectural identity of Arnavutköy in istanbul, the ancient neighbourhood facing a rapid change. History taught us that so many ancient civilizations developed over centuries, continued over periods and been buried in the ashes of history with all their might and glory. Nowadays, because of advanced communication possibilities we are experiencing much more rapid changes taking place within relatively shorter periods of time compared to past As a result of these rapid changes we face with the rapid deterioration of our material and moral historical, cultural values. After the Industrial Revolution, major cities structured disorderly. In order to prevent that and maintain cultural identity, preservation and protection of values accepted as cultural legacy of communities. The idea of preservation and protection of historical values was first introduced into the Turkish literature in 1973 with the Law No. 1710, concerning " The Turkish Conservation Law" This also points to the beginning of an era where the attempts at preservation and protection would no longer be limited to the single historical monuments but would cover other sites and esembles as well. In the Europe where attempts have been extended for the protection of historic centers, different approaches have been adopted depending on the conditions characteristics of each country. However, they all share the idea that attempts should be undertaken with consistency and on a continous basis. Another view, generally shared in this respect, was that such areas should also be given economic functions, istanbul is an ancient, city housing a rich cultural legacy in its boundries, left over from the major civilisations which had emerged in tins part of the world in the course of history. Historical sites, in the are mainly located within the city wails. But some of the the sites are located also on the Bosphorus. Arnavutköy was chosen for this study because of ite unique characteristics from the standpoint of protection and preservation. First part of the thesis deals with the civil architecture and social life around the Bosphorus in XIX th. century. At the same time, some of the famous yalis are described. The second part of the thesis deals with the general description and historical back- round of Arnavutköy and some of its historical and monumental buildings. The history of Arnavutköy goes back to the First Ages. The examination of its historical devolopment reveals that ite name was "Hestiai" before Christian Era and XV there was holy place named "Lauras Media". This small village was also a favorable point of the Bosphorus in Roman times. The church of Archangel Michael was built in the IV th. century by Byzantine Emperor Constantius. The name of the village was "Promote" in that century. The village called "Anaplus" in the VI th. century named also "Horasmato" { = The village of Angels ), because of several hagiasmas and churches which were buiit there. During the reign of Emperor Justnian the Great, the Church of Arhangel Michael was replaced by a new "Michaelion", circular in plan and surrounded by a colonnaded courtyard. The village flourished until the Ottomans made It risky to live on the Bosphorus. After the conquest of Istanbul the village was in disrepair, the church and the adjoining monastery were ruined. Consequently, the building materials of Michalion were used in the constuction of the Rumelihisarı. The third part of the study is about the social structure of the village. According to the historians, people who were originally Albanian, resettled in the same area in the XV th. century. However, the majority of the population in Arnavutköy was Greek and the village was known as a non-Muslim settlement The fourth part of the thesis deals with the physical structure of the village. This part analyses the monuments of Arnavutköy, as well as its civil architecture. The village had to be re-constructed several times because of drastic fires. Timber was always the most well known building material. Because it was easy to construct with. The present street structure of Arnavutköy was laid after the last fires of 1887 and 1908. Most of the houses in Arnavutköy are in the revivalist styles of the XIX th. century. The diversity of the forms and the decoration of the facades are presented by sets of jetties, canopies, balconies, pediments and serrated gables. The problems related to the conservation of the timber houses in Arnavutköy can be classified into two main groups such as : 1. Economic Pressure : The rises in the land values urge the conversion of small hou ses or yalis into high rise apartment houses. For this reason, most of the houses situ ated especiaiy on the sea side were demolished. But on the inner part of Arnavutköy where the land values was lower because of the view, the interference was less. 2. Social Change : Original inhabitants of Arnavutköy were mostly Greeks, migra ted abroad, leaving their houses behind. These one-family houses were inhabited by several families who used each floor as one dwelling. Also those houses were prefer red by low-income groups who have no idea about the architectural importance of the environment and the house they live in. Finally we can say that, to create a healty traditional environment, the characteristic of a historical area must be preserved. In Arnavutköy this area there are a lot of monumental and enviromental values. Especially the civil architecture of the area conserves its traditional characteristics. These Arnavutköy houses were taken under statutory protection in 1976 by the High Commision of Historical Buildings and Monuments. Many of the historical houses of the area are registered as "second group". According to theTurkish Regulations, second group buildings can be totally demolished and reconstructed again, with their former traditional / historical facades. But generally, the reconstruction of these facades are not always faithful copies of the original facades. The new buildings are usually constructed by reinforced concrete frame with brick walls and covered with timber. XVI The traditional urban texture of Arnavutköy is formed by timber or masonry houses, and row houses. The plots are mostly narrow and long strips, straight and perpen dicular to the road. Behind the houses, several gardens can be observed. The houses have entrance raised with a few steps. The ground floors consist of a hall and a room at the front, and there is a washroom and sometimes a kitchen at the back, the upper floors also have a couple of rooms at each side, as well as a toilette and a bathroom. Usually the front facades have windows and balconies projecting over the street. Abdiilhak Molla Street which is chosen as an example of a characteristic street of the district, is located near the seaside. This street intersects Beyazgül Street and reaches Satış Square where the church and the school of the district are situated. After the analyses of the study in the research area, it is possible to summarize some of the important following results : Most of the houses in the resarch area have two or three stories. According to the re- sarch of the construction system of houses, %26 of them are made of timber, %14 are masonry houses and %52 of them are constructed in concrete system and %8 of them are concrete system cladded with timber. Another analysis shows the functional situations of the houses. According to this study, %38 of them have a commercial function in ground floor, while %52 of them have only residential function and %10 of them have only commercial function. Today %37 of the houses of the research area have historical values. The %30 of them can be rehabilitated with some restoration techniques, while the %27 of them are not unfamilier with the historical environment of Arnavutköy and %6 of them are reconstructed as second group. As buildings are evaluated according to their protection levels, it can be seen that 14% of them are protected quite good. ; 23% of them are in an intermediate level and 6% of them are in a bad position. 57%of them are new buildings. This part includes also a detailed description of the typological approach of the hous es, such as window and door characteristics, projections, upper coverings, facade or ders and decorations. The problems related to the pyhsical environment of the street, were pointed out and some of its solutions are developed. Following, you will find a summary of our recommendations concerning the preservation and protection of the region through adopting new design and modes of employment. -Inprinciple the historical space layout should be preserved in the district. -Starting from the idea that preservation of a site should accompanied by adopting new functions. -In order to prevent probable speculative developments, restrictions should be imposed on density, height and specifications of the buildings. -The style, form and and characteristics of the existing buildings should be studied and uses as a basis in devoloping new design and layouts. - Measures should be taken not to destroy the characteristic of the district as a whole, in the course of developing suggestions for improvement XVII -A plan should be prepared for improving the roads and transportation network to meet the demands of present day. In conclusion, such districts with unique characteristics and historical values deserve special attention while working on plans to determine development trends of the city and special plans and suggestions should be worked out for such places for their protections and at the same time for their integration with the demands of the living city. Unless they are functional historical sites put under protection, soon loose their justification for existence and become a financial burden for the city management Structures with cultural and historical values must be actively used for functions suitable to their make up. This would also be desirable from the stand point of making economic and practical use of the existing building stock of the city. Finally in part IX, one of the characteristic comer house of Abdülhak Molla Sokak was taken as an example. In this part of the thesis, the present condition of the building were described in details : -Foundations -Floors -Walls, doors and windows -Upper coverings -Ornamental characteristics The detailed photographs and measured drawings of the building are used the description. The IX th. chapter deals also with the deterioration of the building. The main deterioration is due to the result of leaving it without any function for years. And so, the building had some problems related to the original structure and material. As a result of the factors mentioned above, the type of failures can be classified into three main topics which consist of : -Structural failures. -Material failures; -Deteriorations of use. The X th. chapter deals with the restitution problems and comments about the original building. Some restitutions are done, according to the original elemente of the building. Some parts which had been built as an extension in the building, are demolished. The last chapter contains the restoration of the building. First of all, the new function proposed for the building is described and the restorations which must be done are explained in detail. The necessary restoration tecniques for preserving and maintaining the building are as follows : o Liberation o Consolidation o Reintegration o Reconstruction o Renovation of the sanitary and electrical installations o Renovation of the heating and lighting
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Ahşap iskeletli yapılar, Timber skeleton constructions, Restorasyon, Tarihi konut dokusu, İstanbul-Gaziosmanpaşa-Arnavutköy, Istanbul-Gaziosmanpaşa-Arnavutköy, Historical building tissue, Restoration