Kentsel Mekan Karakterinin Yapısal Çevre-meydan Etkileşimi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi

Hızlan, Z. Sibel Uzunoğlu
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bölüm l'de günümüzde kentsel mekanların azlığı, varolanların da önemli bir bölümünün belli bir kimliğe sahip olma dığı belirtilmiş, buna sebep olan etkenler açıklanmıştır. Bölüm 2 'de kentsel mekanların tanımı yapılmış, fonksiyon ları açıklanmış, kent dokusu içindeki yeri ve Önemi belirtilerek tarihsel süreç içinde "meydan"ın gelişimi ve Türklerde "meydan"ın yapısı incelenmiştir. Bölüm 3.1. de, çevrenin dış mekan düzenlenmesindeki etkileri üzerinde durulmuş, dış mekanların kimlik kazanmasın da mekanın kendisi kadar çevresinin de önemli olduğu vurgulanmıştır. Bölüm 3. 2. de, meydanlara anlam ve nitelik kazandıran, etkileyen çevresel özellikler çeşitli düzeylerde irdelen - mistir. Bölüm 4'te, üç değişik nitelikte meydan, çeşitli metodların değerlendirilmesiyle oluşturulan bir model metod ile incelenmiştir. Bölüm 5 "de, sunulan tüm bilgiler ve araştırmalar değerlen dirilerek çevrenin ve mekanın bir bütün olarak ele alınmasının önemi belirtilmiş ve böyle bir değerlendirmenin gelecekteki görsel biçimi verecek plana temel oluşturduğu vurgulanmıştır.
The scarcity of the Urban spaces in the recent days, and also a major part of existing ones having no any particular identity, can be deemed as they are dependent on the various factors. Interior spaces has been on the with the works in the development space, but, the reciprocal interaction of the exterior space on the environmental formation has not taken into consideration as much as necessary. Various causes are effective on the absences of the characteristic urban spaces. 1) Dependence on the motor-vehicles that increased with the technological development. And. traffic crowd, troubles on parking etc. Problems arising as the results of that are preventing the formations of the qualified urban spaces especially urban squares. 2) The abstractions on the design of the original buildings have been started with the formation of modern movements on the architecture in the earlier 20 th century. The urban spaces and especially urban squares have been neglected in that period. The relation between places and buildings have not been established well and, the buildings have been designed as abstracted from their environments. 3) One more cause of the reductions on the traditional qualities of the urban squares is a result of the policies which were produced with the aim of reducing the crowd on the ground surface by bringing the buildings higher, have been caused to the buildings to be designed as units that having no any relation with each other also with the entire city. 4) Absences on the positive participations of the people and the governors in the coordinations of the urban squares; no enough sensitivity being shown at that subject? insufficiency of the laws; and finally, no consideration of the.environmental image can be pointed out as the important causes. VI The aim of the thesis that is prepared considering all of those above, is to speed up the formation of the urban spaces, particularly urban squares as the qualified spaces integrating with their environments in visual and physical respects, and to examine some techniques and methods to be followed up in this way. At the secondpart of the thesis, the descriptions and the functions of the urban spaces, and their places in the urban texture are mentioned. The spaces being out of the environment where is structured in a natural contour, are described as the exterior spaces. When the exterior space is considered, three important features of it, "the originality", "the functional qualification", and "the environmental image" which it is created on the people who are using the environment, can not be unconsidered. The urban sites are, "squares", and "streets" streets are canals where people is moved on, where are proving the social relations between the users achieving the transpor tation. They are the dynamic facts. But, the square is a static fact, and is the most elite element of the establishment structure due to it is a place for gathering and is a focal-point. The urban space where is decribed with the specific limits, must have a function. Due to their physical dif ferencies, the functions of the urban spaces, will effect the urban space and consequently the formation of the blocks which aire describing it. For example, there are both, dimensional and structural differencies between Boğazköy Square, and Courtyard-Square in the traditional Turkish Acrhitecture. A modern urban space; collecting the social and economical efficiencies in its structure, gains semantic with its environment. It is necessary to think, to perceive it with its environment, and not to unconsider the adapta - tions and harmonies of structural groups with each other surronding it. Only in this manner, an urban space, where is planned by concidering the urban texture and its close surroundings, gains an identity. At the end of the first part, the development of the square in the historical period and the survey of the square tradition in Turks are explained. The arresting features of old urban squares, that can be esteemed that are, sites being covered, adaptations on and harmonies with the other structures surrounding them, and that they are collected the qualified objects in their structures. The descriptive sites have been formed in that manner. And the concept of square in Turks, in respect of social life, has been organised by the forma tion of the courtyard-squares as devoted to individual and social usages. Although the interest has been showed to urban squares by the time of The Republic, it is difficult to tell that we have successful urban squares now. vii In the third part, the effects of the environmental character on the formation of the exterior space in short, the environmental character is explained under the title of the survey of exterior character which is decribed by the surrounding structures. A particular environment has the characteristical features that describing, and separating it from the other environments. Those features also effect the space where that environment has been formed and help its quality to be determined. Environment effect the exterior space at the same time as the space limiter. Three important features of the successful urban squares are as following: 1) Three-dimensional frame: It described the limits, the degree of coverness, the balance of fullness emptyness, and limiting elements of it. The scales of the walls that are connected with the scales of people, and the ground level which that frame is balanced is a factor on the description of the three-dimensional limit. The Coverness of the space, plays an influential part on the formation of an intensive socialization on a street or square. The starting point of successfull urban squares, that they are though and taken in hand as a space limiters. The limitations strengthen the visual quality of covered spaces. 2) Two-dimensional pattern: It defines the materials, contents, and composition of the ground level. If a ground level is formed with the shown on the quality of the materials, the sensitivity that details, and successful composition fiction, then, it gives a sense of character to the space in the visual respect. 3) The settlement of the object on the space: The objects on the space are the elements such as, statues, water items, monuments, and trees; they make the space percep tible by forming local-points. The objects are used to define the center and they give animation to the space. The most successful space samples, are covering an existential reply of those organised concepts. The necessity of protection of urban environmental character is mentioned at the end of third part, some protection policies must be developed in order to realise that. To turn the urban spaces into qualified and protec ting them have been taken as a target. The targets of the policy to be formed can be set up in that order; How an urban space to be formed can be positioned in its environment; how it can protect its idendity and existence; and how it can create a harmonious relation with the existent structures and spaces in its environment without copying the past? viii The images that are effecting the squares in the interac tion of space environment, and donating them with semantic and quality; are explained. 1) One of the images is, the problem of scale and rate that proving us to perceive the square as three-dimensio nal. According to that it is necessary the square to have definite rates. And the buildings and the square must have appropriate scale at the same time shortly it must be close to people scales, this, both proves people to feel comfortable them selves lin 'the space and also strengthens the effect of the space. 2) The light is an. important image in respect of proving the details perceived in the squares. 3) The quality of colour, the percentage of area where they are covering, participate in the environmental character and consequently in the urban squares, according to the ways of distribution. 4) The quality of details and materials is also one of the images effecting the squares andJ.donating them with the qualification. 5) The balance of fullness-emptyness creates an architectural combination feeling in the square. 6) The concept of variety must be considered in order to strengthen the environmental image. Some rythmical differencies are effective on preventing the monotony on the square. The variation up to a level provides the square and its environment could be given semantic. 7) The sirculation permanence that being one of the images effecting the urban squares, is important from the points of views that it keeps the interest continuously alive, and it provides a definite permanence. 8) The importance of the landscape is quite big on the square coordinations whatever the dimensions of the settlings may be the qualified sites which are well identified with their boundaries and landscape features, help the formation of the identity of that setting. If it is a space, described with the square of the various qualities, it is impossible not to mention the existences of the landscape areas. The various squares are surveyed in the ' fourth part in respect of understanding the effects of space on the users within the interactron of space-environment. This study is important also for taking the physical, local changes under the discipline, for devoting to the new coordinations and for guidding the protection works. At first, the square at three different qualities is surveyed at this part. These squares; are Ortaköy square, Süleymaniye square, and Sultanahmet square. ix There different squares are chosen especially in order to give the possibility of looking from different points of views with the different approaches. Ortakoy square is a good example for the Boğazköy squares. It is a place giving service to both Ortakoy people and the people who are coming from the outside of the district for many years, and it is also a place where the activities of recreation, culture and art, are continued there today. The Gourtyard" the Suleymaniye mosque is an example that taking a part in the system of courtyard-square. The square concepts in Turkish cities are mostly formed as mosque courtyards. Suleymaniye Mosque, being one of the extremely important works of Architect Sinan, attracts attention with its courtyard also. Sultanahmet square, is in the status of the historical and urban square with the intensive history and cultural stock that it has. The image being cretad on today's users by this square where having the various functions from the Byzantines up today is surveyed. And after that some methods and system that could be used in the analysis of urban space are mentioned. These can be from the points of image behavioural, visual and etc. The collective formation in these methods arises in the, relation of space-environment-user. The visual effect created by space-environment interaction on the user is researched. After these methods and systems are surveyed, the model-method to be used on the chosen there squares are explained. Then the square are examined by studying the cognitive charracteristics of the users. Time is taken in hand as "static". By this way the time is related to this moment, Two main work areas are formed. Firstly, squares and structural groups in their environment are examined, and; secondly the preferences of the users are determined. At first, some observations are made about the squares. Participation of the users in not possible here. The aim is to determine the subjects to be surveyed, these observations are gathered in three articles. First are the descriptions of limits of squares, coverness level, and limiting elements. The square is thought here as three-dimensional. Second article, is the researchments of the quality of materials, details of the squares, and from of coordination. The square is taken in hand as a twc -dimensional level here. And as third article, the establishment of the objects on the square is examined. After reaching some observations on the evaluation of the squares, the model-method that is formed in the light of those observations are explained article by article. These are sub-openings of the criterious that being determined in the observation part. In other words x it explains the criterious that fixed by reaching the observations how they to be evaluated. The. subjects that are mentioned. At the third part of the thesis are discussed as the sub-opening of the criterious that are determined at the observation part. After the method is determined, the subjects that are to be evaluated by some approaches are reflected to the users. The preferences of users are the matters in question. The users are surveyed in two groups: Architects and other persons. By to the persons who are chosen among these by the way of selection, and by supporting these questions with some pictures, photos, and graphics they are asked to reply these questions. The answers of the users, are seen as a concrete step in the determination of their environmental preferences and relations on the spaces. In the conclusion part, it is examined this thesis by considering the whole of it. It is stated the importance of consideration as a whole both the environment and the space and is emphasised that such an evaluation occurs visual form in the future.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Kentsel mekan, Meydanlar, Urban space, Squares