Kars Yöresi Halk Müziği Ve Halk Oyunlarında Nanay Ve Yallı Havaları

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Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Kars ilinin zengin ve çok çeşitlilik gösteren kültürel yapısı, il folklorunun her alanının, ayrı bir araştırma kaynağı olmasına ve günümüze kadar gelmesine yolaçmıştır. "Nanay ve Yallı" olarak adlandırılan ezgili oyunlar ise üzerinde inceleme yapılacak derecede yöreye ve kendine has özelliklere sahiptir. Çalışmamız bu konu üzerine yoğunlaşmış ve bir sonuca varılmıştır. Öncelikle konuya bir giriş niteliği taşıyan ve yöre hakkında kısa bir ön bilgi teşkil edecek, tarihi konusunda bilgiler verilmiştir. Bir takım fikirler edinmek açısından adının kaynağı, tarihte kimlerin himayesine geçtiği ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti topraklarına nezaman katıldığı yine coğrafi konumu, komşuları, iklim ve tarih boyunca yörenin kendine has kültürel yapısının oluşmasını sağlayan etnik gruplardan sözedilmiştir. ilin folklor yapısı içinde yer alan "Nanay ve Yallı" ezgili oyun türleri hakkında açıklayıcı bilgiler verilmiştir. Bunların özellikleri, geleneksel yaşam içindeki yeri ve önemi açıklanmıştır. Hangi zamanlarda, ne şekilde ve niçin söylendiği ve oynandığı, kimlerin söylediği ve oynadığı, bir araya gelen grupların oyun esnasında neşekilde sıralandıkları, nasıl el ve kol tuttukları açıklanmaktadır. Yine nanaylar melodi ve güfte bakımından incelenmekte edebi ve müzikal yapılan ortaya çıkartılmaktadır. Bu çalışmalarıaortaya çıkarılmış derleme parçaları bulunmakta, derlemeleri aldığımız yöre insanlarının biyografileri ve derleme parçalarının bilgi fişleri yer almaktadır.
City of Kars has been a settlement province and a transit way for many nomad tribes since ancient times. It has arde as uniting Anatolia and Turkish tribes. This situation has resulted in enrichment and forming of cultural structure. Furthermore, its climate ant geogrraphic structure have had also an important role on it. Many various ethnic groups settled in Kars which lived together, so as are suit of these interactions, they formed a cultural structure showing a lot of assortments. There ffore, the city is a rich source to explore. Although "Nanay"s are seen only in Kars, they are also met in some other cities in different names or forms. Many Turkish tribes, which had spread out in other cities such as Erzurum and Artvin, carried same traditions to these cities that were kept on. For this reason, it is not true if it is said that "Nanay"s are seen only in Kars. It is inevitable that same thigs are found in those provinces in Anatolia where various groups settled having a lot of common cultural elements. "Nanay" and "Yalh" melodies have a distinctive importance in Kars. Singing "Nanay" in this province becomes a tradition. Entertainments of thecity cannot bi thought without "Nanay"s. Especially, in rural life it is seen more clearly. In urban life, some difficulties and struggles caused a slight vi dissappearance of "Nanay"s. Therefore, they are more frequently seen in rural life. Dances are also performed while singing "Nanay"s when public meets for different occassions such as wedding ceremonies, nights when henna is tinged, harvests, heaps, washing and combing wool, excursion festivals etc... "Nanay"s are known as lyrics, lyrics are completed by belodies. There are generally no musical instruments, they exist rarely. If there is a musical instrument, it keeps on the melodie while the lyrics are sung. The words "Nanay-Yalii" and "Bar" are used together and in asimilar meaning in thes provinc. Some of the ethic groups living in the city call "bar" whereas some of the call "Yallı! for all collective dances. The word 'Yallı" is mostly used by Azerbaijanis or 'Terekeme" people who settled in the city beforehand. While singing "Nanay", "Yallı" is dances. It is called "yallı tutmak" which is an expression used in teh province very frequently. Its meaning is to dance collectively and in various forms of fastening each other. There are also other ewpressions suchas "yallıya çıkmak" or "nanay tutmak" in the same meaning. There are no strict numbers of dancers while dancing "Yallı". However, since they are collective dances and the number of dancers in collective dances is not less than five people, it can be said that "Nanay"s contain at least five people. This number may get bigger gradually. vu The groups singing "Nanay" and dancing "Yalli" contoin generally young girls and boys but adults are also included only if the dance's tempo is not too fast for them to reach. These young people collecting together form froups indifferent places or mixed groups. Their figures can be collected in three types. There are slow 'Yalir's which have very slow and simple figures, fast "Yalh"s which have fast and varied figures and transitive "Yalli"s which begin slowly and then accelerate. "Nanay"s and "Yalli"s have a distinctive importance in musical manner and also as a dance. Since they can bi put in lyrics dances group, they can be examined both according to their melodies and as collective dances. How it is danced, the forms of figures, fastening each other can be examined very detailed. Performance of "Nanay"s is also important. It has a provincial characteristics. It is generally know as that women sing them but alsomen do. They are sung by groups of two. The lyrics of the first group are repeated by the second group. These repeats are the main characteristics of "Nanay"s. These group sing the some lyrics but they should begin with the last word or words of the lyrics sung by the former group or individual. This type of singing is called "çevirme" or "dönderme" (changing or spinning) in the province. vm Singers' voice should be nice. Moreover, they should know alot of "mani"s and should have a capacity to produce new ones simultaneously. This type of people are invited especially to the entertainments in the province. The themes of "Nanay"s are generally about love. They may be about yearnin, reproach, whims for lover as well as they may bi sung for boy's or girl's names. Furthermore, satiric lyrics are also met whicl are sung in a joking manner by girls or boys. This kind of "Nanay"s are also called "akışta" or "hakıştı" in the province. "Mani"s can be sung in each "Nanay" melody, in other words it is possible to sing a "mane" in different melodies. This situation doesn't cause any problems in musical structure or literary structure. This is an other characteristics of melodies and lyrics of "Nanay"s. Data about "Nanay" and "Yalli" can be collected by interviews with provincial people. There are twenty orginal melodies has been gathered. Although they were not gathered in rural area, it can be said that they were not influenced by the urban way of life. With the introduction of communication means to the provicial people's life, some of them were effected living in and out of the city. Those people sang some foreign melodies heard from these means as "Nanay". IX However, In thes study, all the gathered orglnal "Nanay" melodies have the melodic structure belonging completely to this province. They were sung by people reated to various ethnic groups forming the social structure of the city. There isn't any obvious difference since they live together and are influencing each other. Data index of thes melodies was prepared. The people's age who are the main sources for the melodies, their jobs, when, haw and from whom they have learned were explained. Moreover, the names of the melodies, the date when they were gatheredand the place where they were gathered, the person who wrote the notes of the melodies and the person who gathered them are known and it gives more information about the melodies. In this index, the lyrics of the melodiees are shown more clearly. The biographies of the people who are the souras were prepared so that teh history of the melodies is also put in singht. Information can bi got in thi written sources are not sufficient for thes study. Much more material and sampling about the subject people. Gathered materials are presented in the study as different sections and titles.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Ezgi, Folklor, Halk müziği, Halk oyunları, Kars, Music, Melody, Folklore, Folk music, Folk dances, Kars