Yönetim danışmanlığı

Erdoğan, Banu
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada; bir şirketi hedeflerine ulaştırmak amacıyle karar verme mekanizmasının başında bulunan çeşitli düzeydeki yöneticilere, sorunlarını çözme ve analiz etmede ve ayrıca başarılı yönetim uygulamalarını bir şirketten diğerine aktarmada yardımcı bir araç olan " Yönetim Danışmanlığı " konusu incelenmiştir. İnceleme sırası şöyledir; Birinci bölüm, giriş bölümünden oluşmuştur. İkinci bölümde, yönetim danışmanlığının tanımı ve özellikleri ile yönetim danışmanının tanımı ve özellikleri anlatılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, yönetim danışmalığınm aşamalarına - ön araştırma, giriş, teşhis, planlama, eylem, değerleme, bitirme-, müşteri-danışman ilişkilerine, yönetim danışmanının, seçimine, kullanma nedenlerine, kişisel davranış modeline yer verilmiştir. Ayrıca danışmanlık sürecinde, karşılaşılan sorunlar ve kullanılan modeller de bu bölümde incelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, yönetim danışmanlığı yaklaşımlarından olan, sistemli ilişkiler yaklaşımı ile insan ilişkileri yaklaşımı incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde, çeşitli yönetim alanlarında yapılan yönetim danışmanlıkları anlatılmıştır. Bu alanlar, - Genel Yönetimde Danışmanlık, - Finansman Yönetiminde Danışmanlık, - Personel Yönetiminde Danışmanlık, - Küçük İşletmelerin Yönetiminde Danışmanlık, - Üretim Yönetiminde Danışmanlıktır. Altıncı bölümde ise, bir "Y" danışmanlık firmasının, bir "X" şirketine verdiği iş analizi eğitim kursunda, kullanılmak üzere hazırlanmış iş analizi el kitabı ile orta büyüklükteki bir "Z" bilgi işlem şirketi için hazırlanmış (v) iş tanxmlan, görevler ve sorumluluklar raporu örnek olarak verilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın sonucunda, teknolojinin gelişmesi, artan bilgi kaynakları ve toplumların kısa sürede değişen ekonomik yapıları, şirketleri bu ortama uyumlu bir şekilde yönetmeye çalışan çeşitli düzeydeki yöneticiler için yönetim danışmanlığının vazgeçilmez yararlı bir araç olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Buna rağmen yönetim danışmanlığının ülkemizdeki kullanımının yaygın ve yeterli olmaması dikkat çekmiştir. Halbuki gelişmekte olan ülkemiz için yönetim danışmanlığının gelişimi ihtiyaç duyulan bir gelişmedir. Bunun için yerli danışman firmalara ve şirketlere düşen görevler eksiksiz bir şekilde yapılmalıdır.
Management consulting is a professional service that helps managers to analyse and solve practical problems and transfer successful management practises from one enterprise to another. In its guide to membership, the Institute of Management Consultants in the United Kingdom defines management consulting as: "The service provided by an independent and qualified person or persons in identifying and investigating problems concerned with policy, organisations, procedures and methods; recommending appropriate action and helping to implement these recommendations." Definitions used by other professional associations of management consultants, such as the Associations of Consulting Management Engineers in the USA, are very smilar. This shows management consulting to be a special service, to which managers can address themselves if they feel a need for help in problem solving. The consultant's work begins with some condition judged to be unsatisfactory and capable of amelioration; it ideally ends with acondition in which a change has taken place, a change that must be seen as an improvement. Some particular features of management consulting need to be emphasised at the outset. First, consulting is an independent service. This is charecterised by the detachment of the consultant, which is a major feature of his role. But this independence means at the same time that consultants enter into a very complex (VX!) relationship with their client organisations and the people working within them. The consultant has no direct authority to decide on changes and implement them, but this must not be viewed as a weakness. He has to master the art of being a deeply concerned change agent without giving up his independence. He must, therefore, ensure the utmost involvement of the client in everything he does, so that ultimate success becomes a joint accomplishment. Secondly, consulting is essentially an advisory service. This means that consultants are not recruited to run organisations or take delicate decisions on behalf of desperate managers. They are advisers and their responsibility is for the quality and integrity of their advice; the clients carry all the responsibilities that accrue from taking it. Off course, in the practise of consulting these are many variations and degrees of "advice". Not only to give the right advice, but to give it in the right way and at the right time, this is a basic skill of a consultant. The client in his turn needs to become skillful in taking and utilising the consultant's advise. These points are so important that we shall be returning to them many times in the next that follows. Thirdly, consulting is a service providing professional knowledge and skills relevant to practical management problems. An individual becomes a management consultant in the full sense of the term by accumulating considerable knowledge of varying management situations and problems and acquiring skills needed for problem solving for identifying problems, finding relevant information, analysing and synthesising, choosing between alternative solutions, communicating with people and so on. But managers, too, need to possess these particular types of skill. What is unique to consultants is that over the years they pass through many organisations and learn how to use experience from previous assignments to handle new assignments skillfully. In addition to this, professional consultants keep continuously abreast of developments in management methods and techniques, including those that take place in universities and research institutions; make clients aware of them; and help in applications. They function thus as a link between the theory and practise of management. Fourthly, consulting is not a service providing miracle solutions to difficult managerial problems. It would be an error to assume that once a consultant is brought in, life becomes easy for management. Consulting is difficult, systematic and disciplined work based on the analysis of hard facts and the search for imaginative but feasible solutions. Strong management committment to (vxix) solving the problems of the organization and client- consultant cooperation are at least as important to the end results as the quality of the consultant's advice. Managers would see no reason for using consultants if the latter could not provide something that is missing in a particular organisation. As a rule consultants are used for one or more of the following reasons. Providing Special Knowledge and Skill: Consultants are called in when an organisation is short of people able to tackle a given problem with the same chance of success. It may often involve new techniques and methods in which a consultant has acquired special expertise. In other cases, the problem submitted may be of a general nature, if the organisation is failing to achieve its principal purpose and the gaps in knowledge concern general management policy, planning, co-ordination or leadership. Supplying Intensive Professional Help on a Temprorary Basis: A deep examination of major problems, such as the company organisation or marketing policy, would require the full attention of senior management for lomg periods of time. But the day-to-day running of business leaves little time, and, what is worse, it is difficult to concentrate on operational and conceptual problems simultaneously. Consultants not only provide the time but will leave the organisation once the job is completed. Giving an Impartial Outside Viewpoint: Even the best people within an organisation may be too influenced by their personal involvement and propose feasible solutions. Because he is independent of the client organisation, a management consultant can be impartial in situations where no one from within the organisation would be. Providing Management with Arguments which Justify Predetermined Measures: From time to time consultants are approached with the request to undertake assignments, and submit reports, so that a manager can justify his decision by referring to the consultant's recomandation. In other words a manager may know exactly what he wants and what his decision will be, but prefers to order a consultant's report to obtain support for his views. This is a not unreasonable course but, as a matter of principle and in their own interest, professioal consultants should be careful not to accept assigments in which their services might be misused for in-company politics. (IX) The above-mentioned reasons may be present in such varying degrees and may be so inter-related that the consultant is confronted with quite a complex situation. He should nevertheless endeavour to maintain a clear view of the reasons for which his services are being used, even if in the course of an assignment the initial reasons change or entirely new ones are discovered. Consulting has developed as an external and internal service.( seen from the viewpoint of an organisation using consultants ) An external consultant is administratively full independent of the organisations for which he works. An internal consultant is part of a particular organisational entity an autonomous consulting bureau reporting to an industrial ministry might be viewed as an internal unit since it is part of the goverment services, but may have the same working relationship to the public enterprises reporting to this ministry as have independent external consulting firms. In the present day practise of consulting, larger organisations in the public and private sectors use both external and internal consultants. Internal consulting services are often thought to be more appropriate for problems that require a deep knowledge of the highly complex internal relations, procedures and political factors in large organisations; and an awareness of the various functions of the organisation or of spesific constraints affecting its operation. In goverment, they may be used for national security and interest reasons. If there is a steady demand for advice in special methods and techniques, an internal consulting service may be a cheaper and more productive arrangement. External consultants are preferred, even by organisations which have some internal consulting capability, in situations where an internal consultant would not meet the criteria of impartiality and confidentiality or would be short of particular expertise. In some cases, complex assignments are entrusted jointly to external and internal consultants or internal consultants may be requested to define precisely the assignment for an external consultant, and to calloborate with him in order to learn as much as possible from him during the assignment. (*) When we examine the chapters one by one; we see that the fxrst chapter is the introduction part of the subject. In the second chapter, the definition and characteristics of management consulting and management consulting are explained. In the third chapter, steps of management consulting - starting investigation, introduction, identification, planning, action, appreciation, result -, relations between client and consultant, choose of management consultant, reasons of consultant use and individual attitude model are taken place. In addition, the problems which faced and the models which are used during consultancy are also examined in this chapter. In the fourth chapter, systematic relations approach and human relations approach which are from management consulting approach are examined. In the fifth chapter, management consulting works which at various management fields are expressed. These fields are; - Consulting in general management - Consulting in financial management - Consulting in personnel management - Consulting in small enterprise's management - Consulting in production management In the sixth chapter, a job analysis hand-book which is prepared for using in a job analysis education course, given to "X" company by "Y" consulting company and a report consisting of job definitions, duties and responsibilities, which is prepared for a medium scale computer company, are given as examples. As a result of this study, it has come into sight that management consulting is very useful installment for the managers at different levels who try to manage their companies harmonies with the environment which is formed by developing technology, increasing knowledge sources and rapidly changing economic structure of societies. In spide of this fact, management consulting is still not used enough and widely known in our country. Whereas development of management consulting is a needful development for our developing country. For this reason, domestic consulting firms and companies should make their own missions perfectly.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1992
Anahtar kelimeler
Danışmanlık hizmetleri, Yönetim, Yönetim danışmanlığı, Consulting services, Management, Management consulting