Otel hizmetlerinin pazarlama planlaması içinde promosyon çalışmaları

İrdiren, Eren
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Turizm sektörü denince ilk akla gelen alan konaklama işletmeleridir. Konaklama işletmeleri çeşitli sınıflarda oteller, moteller, kampingler, pansiyonlar, tatil köyleri ve oberjler olarak sınıflandırılabilir. Türkiye'de 1960'lerin başında yatak kapasitesi sorunu varken, bugün 1969 sonu verileriyle 210.000 adet yatağı ulaşılmış ve halen de yapımı sürdürülen konaklama işletmeleriyle bu sayının bir hayli üstüne çıkılması planlanmıştır. Bir anda artan bu konaklama alternatifleri, beraberinde bu pazara yoğun bir rekabeti ve ardın dan daha iyi daha kaliteli hizmeti verme yarışını getir miştir. Bu durumda hazır bulunan yatak kapasitesinin ve dolayısıyla işletmenin diğer hizmet ve kolaylıklarının pazarlanması gerekmektedir. Aşağıdaki çalışmada genelde turizm ve bu sektör deki konaklama türlerinden söz edildikten sonra; pazar şartları, konumlandırma, hedef kitlenin ve bunlara dayandırılarak incelenecek promosyon planlamasının oteller çerçevesinde sınırlı bırakılması uygun görülmüştür, çalışmada otel pazarlama planı genel enlemde verildikten sonra; pazarlama planı içinde promosyon plan laması ve karması tek tek incelenmiş ve halkla ilişkiler, kişisel satış, satış promosyonu, reklam unsurlarının nasıl kullanılması gerektiği yolunda açıklamalarda bulunul muştur. Yapılan çalışmalar ve gözlemler göstermiştir ki, Türkiye, -992 de tek pa ar olacak Avrupa Topluluğu ülkeleri ile rekabet edecek bir hazırlığa henüz girmiş değildir. Hedef pazarların seçilmesi ; bu pazarların taşınıp alternatif turizm hizmetlerinin oluşturulması ve en önemlisi, yapılanların belli bir program içinde pazarlanması gerekmektedir. Otelcilik sektöründe pazarlamanın üç unsuruna hayat verip faaliyete geçiren, promosyon planlamasına vakit kaybetmeden gereken önemin verilmesi, gerek otelcilik pazarında kal ab il iri ik, gerekse rekabet için gereklidir.- Çalışmada yerli ve yabancı reklam malzemeleri örnek olarak eklenmiş ve otellerin kampanya çizgisi ile ilgili bir fikir vermesi amaçlanmıştır..
The hotel-motel industry offers one of the most challenging and demanding, yet throughly re warding "-opportunities of any business field. The great diversity of types, sizes and locations of properties, the wide variety of different Job positions within a hotel or resort, the constant personal contact with people of every conceivable background, the atmosphere generated by the hustle and bustle of today's modern operation - all atrackt workers to this fascinating, rewarding"field. The hotel industry today is vastly diffe rent from the "mine-host" days of 50 and 75 years ago. Today there are many different types of people who utilize many different types of accomodations and facilities for wider variety of reasons than in the days of our grand- fathers. And this has created a different type of person in today's in dustry. Today's succesful hotel proffeBional roust be able to perform a multitute of operations in a polished, businesslike manner. However, he also must be able to blend in the personal touch, for while auto nation, computerization and other technological advan tages have made their way into the field, the hospi - tality industry is still first service industry and requires a personal aproach. In the 1920' s and 1930' s ani right after A'orld War II., the hospitality industry enjoyed pretty much of a seller's market. The demand for accomoda tions for the most part was greater than the available supply. The average hotel manager did not feel it necessary to actively seek business in fact, many con sidered 3uch activity beneth their dignity. Terms like sales promotion, marketing were no more than words in the dictionary. The rise of the middle class led industry to compete for its money. All this factors had an t -IT- effect on the european hotel industry. The increased travel opportunities airplanes offered njear.it more ptsple could travel and ese hotel facilities.-' At the same time, the housing boom led to decline in the use of hotels as residences. The rise of the middle class meant more peoplt with the money and the ability, to travel. Kore car means more travellers, hut it also meant the introduction of motels as competition to the existing ones. In Turkey, t our i sm industry stood at the same level until the mid 80' s. within it Is discove red by the people, first lack of the hospitality capacity occured. It k*s thought that it was com- panseted with the help of new investments. ?or the last, two years so many hotel and motel have been built. But still tbere is something wrong with Turkey's tourism. Now the problem is hardar and harder than ever before. Because hotels have been facin with the marketing problems. They can't be occupied easily. The occupant} can be fulllilled just by using marketing management tools. Marketing is an umbrella designation covering all aspects of business promotion such as advertising, sales promotion, public relations, brand image and all other factors which contribute to the salabi- lity of the product. The product in t-'.e hospita lity industry being a combination of each tangibles aş rooms, food and beverages, and intangibles such as comfort, convinience, relaxation, recraation, atmosphere and allure. Yarketin strategy is composed of posi tioning, identifying target markets, and develo ping strategies for each element of the marketing mix. The marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. In the hotel industry product is the ho tel and services. Product positioning is a term used to describe the ranking that consumers give to a product or service in comparison to other similar products or services that are available. Ideally, marketing strategy development begins before a hotel is built, it begins with the --v - developer of the project and the architect. marketing strategy is endemic to the succesful result of the OTerall planning process Ey gathering, interpreting and analyzing inf\ rma xion concerning the market, the hotel firm is now in a position to device an enlightened mar ket strategy. Those market segments which of fer the most opportunity for growth and profit and for which the property or chain is best equipped to handle now become the center of the firm's market atttetion. The segments of tne market which cannot economically he catered to by personal sales representatives may be re, ; ached by advertising. Now that the firm knows its market's income, sex, and educational level ani other demographic charecteristics from mar ket- research activities and its geographical concentration, occupational categories and rseanâ of travel to the property from guest his tories, it may device an intelligent advertising campaign. Advertising copy may now be pointed ax the interests of the firm's market. This allows the marketer to present a unique selling point in his advertising copy. Intelligent media choice may also be facilita ted by interpreting market data gathered by marketing research and thereby potential concu- mers may be reached more economically. Personal sales policy offers two ways communication between the buyer and the seller. There is ample opportunity for immediate over coming of objections, the greater chance for a detailed dissjfcssion of the items of most in terest to the potential, consumer, and the op portunity to close to sale when the consumer is in the most receptive frame of mind. The one ma^or limitation of personal selling in the hotel industry is cost. Although an average cost per call figure would be rela tively meaningless due to so many variable fac tors. Thus, personal selling must primarily employed for soliciting conventions, corporate meetings, banquets and other forms of group business and for eontactting those responsible for routing wholesale individual business, such as travel agents, tour operators and transporta- vi - tion officials. Public relations is another elegant of promotion mix. It concerns any organizations. It exists whether vi like it or not. Nobody can decide on to hare or not to tare public relations Public relations consists of all comunications with all the people with whom the hotel has contact. Public Relations practice is the plan ned and sustained effort to establish and main- tin goodwill and mutual understanding between a hotel and its public. It is all those business «. activities concerned with contact with the public for the specific purposes of providing informati on on a hotel policies, plans, and programs. This information should be reflect favorably upon the hotel. Public Relations differs from adverti sing in that no effortis made to sell a specific item or service, instead, the idea is simply to keep the name of the organization before the public. Putting it in a simpler and mere every day terms, a hotel's public relations program should be geared to offering the best image possible to everyone and anyone having any type of contact with the property. It would be di rected at past, present and potential consumers, the general public, the community, the jress, other properties and employees. To be most effective, public relations should have two objectives; 1) to provide a systematic, continual presentation of a favorable image to these varied publics, 2) to compliment the advertising and sales program by offering a soft-sell sales app roach to business promotion. Especially in the hotel motel industry press relations has to be in go&d 'positions. Because the role of press relations practice is to achieve maximum publication or broadcasting of public relations information in order to crea;e knowledge and understanding. _xrn - The major goals of such a basic public re lations programs.light include developing and mainta ining an overall programe of goodwill for the property to increase the salability of its facilities and servi ces, developing and maintaining a polished proffessio. nal ı.age' fe:.iong other? in the hospitality indue try, creating an outstanding reputation for cleanliness, courtesy ani service, becoming an active integral part of t lie community and it» activities making the customer feel, through personalized servicin, that x'.e is an important guest not merely a broader or lodger, motiveting, training and encouraging emplo yees to feel they are an important part of team will give high ralue to those using its facilities and ac comodations. The last ingredient of promotion mix is sales promotion which is the tool to give a hand advertising and sales efforts in order to reach the sale point. tales promotion tools can be classified into t three groups; Individual sales promotions are the ones that the hotel can arrenge an activity itself. Sometimes hotels find a partner or a sponsor which is related to the tourism sector and can organized a group activity. i'uve ileus some of the hotels are arrenge a mullitute ac wivity in a city or a towa and all they get a benefit from it. As a result, in Turkey just a little part of hotels have been working withi.i marketing management thought. Others have. been trying to fiid clients to sel their rooms and other facilities. They ought to diffe- rantiete the^r services and immediately take lh*. promo ticr.al tools into the consideration, otherwise it will affect tne Turkey's tourism success. it should be kept in mind that tourism is a ousineas wnich the results can cnly be in middle and long run. That1 s why marketing mindetness and promoti onal studies are important.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Turizm, Otel hizmetleri, Pazarlama, Tourism, Hotel services, Marketing