Toplu Konut Yerleşimlerinde Açık Alanların Mekânsal Ve Davranışsal Boyutlarda Değerlendirilmesi: Amsterdam Ve Kopenhag Durum İncelemeleri

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Tarih
2015-07-22
Yazarlar
Mangut, Burak
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Kitlesel konut üretimi ihtiyacının karşılanmasına yönelik büyük ölçekli konut yerleşimleri açık mekân örgütlenmeleri açısından önemli potansiyeller taşımaktadır. Toplu barınma kültürü temelinde gelişen örgütlenme kentsel yaşantıyı ve toplumsal ilişkiler bütününü doğrudan biçimlendirmektedir. Çalışma; 20. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında barınma işlevinin gerçekleştiği başlıca alanlar olan toplu konut yerleşimlerindeki açık alanlara odaklanmaktadır. Amaçlanan açık alanların toplu konut yerleşimlerindeki fiziksel ve sosyal örüntüler üzerindeki etkilerini anlamaya çalışmaktır. Bu kapsamda, çalışma mekânsal ve davranışsal boyutlarda incelemeler gerçekleştirerek elde edilen kuramsal veriyi alan çalışması üzerinden değerlendirmeyi hedeflemiştir. Toplu konut yerleşimleri çalışma kapsamında kentsel doku ile birlikte örgütlenen barınma biçimleri olarak ele alınmaktadır. Açık alanlar; toplu konut üretimindeki temel hedefin konut birimlerinin tekil üretimlerinin ötesinde bu birimlerin bir araya geliş biçimlerinin tasarımı olduğu göz önünde bulundurularak değerlendirilmiştir. Bu bağlamda, açık alanlar kentsel yaşantının ve toplumsal ilişkilerin gelişeceği bir platform olarak ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın ana kurgusu insan-çevre ve insan-insan etkileşimleri çerçevesinde gelişen ikili yapı üzerinden örgütlenmektedir. Mekânı ve içerisinde gerçekleşen insan davranışlarını etkileşimli bir biçimde çalışmak hedeflenmiştir. Çalışmanın metodolojisi kuramsal araştırmalar ve seçilen yerleşimlerde gerçekleştirilen gözlem, tespit, ve değerlendirmelerin gerçekleştirildiği alan çalışmasından oluşmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında öncelikle toplu konut yerleşimlerinde açık alanlar ve mekânsal ilişkileri ele alınmıştır. İkinci bölüm içerisinde toplu konut yerleşimlerinde açık alanların taşıdığı potansiyeller değerlendirilmiş, açık alan kullanımlarını etkileyen kalite unsurları tartışılmıştır. Yerleşimlerin sahip olduğu fiziksel karakteristiklerin açık alan yaşantısı üzerindeki etkileri araştırılmış; güvenlik, işlevsel çeşitlilik, ve yoğunluk olguları incelenmiştir. Konut birimlerinin bir araya geliş biçimlerinin açık alanlar üzerindeki etkileri ortaya konularak mekânsal tipler geliştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın üçüncü bölümünde insan-çevre etkileşimi çerçevesinde açık alan kullanımları incelenmiştir. Açık mekânlarda kullanıcı ihtiyaçları araştırılmış; fiziksel, sosyal, ve psikolojik boyutlarda konfor düzeyleri irdelenmiştir. Çevresel etkileşim sonucu ortaya çıkan mekanizmalar tartışılmış; egemenlik alanı, kişisel alan, mahremiyet, ve aidiyet olguları incelenmiştir. İnsan-çevre etkileşim mekanizmalarının yerleşimler üzerindeki etkilerinin anlaşılması amacıyla mekânla ilişkili davranışsal özellikler tartışılmıştır. Çalışmanın dördüncü bölümünde Amsterdam ve Kopenhag’da gerçekleştirilen alan çalışmasına yer verilmiştir. Kuramsal çalışmayla irdelenen konuların kullanılmakta olan konut açık mekânları üzerinden değerlendirilmesi amacıyla bu alan çalışması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Durum incelemesi yolu ile değerlendirilen toplu konut yerleşimlerine dair mekânsal özellikler ve niteliksel veriler karşılaştırmalı olarak ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuç bölümünde alan çalışmasından elde edilen sonuçlar kuramsal veri ile birlikte değerlendirilerek toplu konut yerleşimlerinin tasarımında dikkate alınması gereken ipuçları ortaya konmuştur.
This study focuses on the open spaces in housing settlements which fulfill needs of mass housing in 20th century. The main purpose is to display the effects of physical organization forms on open space usage, and analyze the relationship between open space and behavioral treatment of users. In this context, spatial and behavioral analysis had been executed. Furthermore, study aims to evaluate the theoretical data through a case study. Housing is main function in a city. It is not only build for satisfy user’s needs, but also improve social relationship between community. Moreover, housing is not merely a pattern that is generated by conglomeration of buildings. It is an order which formed by buildings and open spaces between buildings. When physical structure is constituted by buildings, interaction of users reveal the social structure. Herein, open spaces are stage for demonstration of social structure. In the study, housing settlements evaluate as a part of urban pattern. Main approach in production of housing is design of organization forms of housing units rather than simple housing unit. Within this scope, open spaces generate the basis of communal life; it makes possible the interaction of people and relationship of community. Open spaces are essential parts of urban heritage; it fulfills user’s physical, social, and psychological needs. Additionally, open spaces play an important educational role, and have notable potentials for social interaction and in fostering community development. As an essential need to live in a healthy and productive urban settlement, natural environment provides to come into contact with land, sun, and green. Especially for children, open spaces usage have positive effects on their mental and physical development. Interaction of human and nature reveals two structures. Interaction of human-nature constitutes through the physical pattern of the settlements, and interaction of human-human provides the social interaction. Within this scope, the main structure of study develops by considering these two order. In the second chapter of thesis, open spaces and spatial relations were examined. The potentials of open spaces in housing settlements were evaluated. The quality factors that effect directly the open space usage were discussed. Assistance with hierarchy of needs thesis focuses on three notions; security, diversity of functions, and density. Security is one of the main conditions for achieve a livable environment. Basically, the presence of other users and communal relationships provide security in open spaces. Surveillance mechanism and effects of security on quality of settlements were discussed in this chapter. Furthermore, the diversity of functions were examined as a need of meaning and readable environment. Stratification of functions and relationship between routines were revealed. Diversity of functions help to get attraction of people on open spaces in various hours of day and various days of week. Moreover, the ground floors of buildings and street plinths were studied to understand the functions on urban life. The potentials of ground floors and the effects of the functions which located at the ground floors were discussed. The relationship between diversity of functions and social homogeneity were examined. Density conditions were discussed as a last quality factor that effect the open space usage. The density of people and density of housing units were analyzed separately to understand the relationship between physical and social structures of settlements. Various organization strategies were examined in relation with floor area ratio. In the last part of chapter, the spatial typology of open spaces were evaluated. In housing settlements the typology of open spaces strictly related to organization forms of housing units. The organization forms of the units unveil the form of the physical patterns, and provide the spatial formation of open spaces in settlements. The interiors form the exteriors. In other words, as a consequence of articulation of housing units form the open spaces. In the third chapter of thesis, interaction of human-nature and human-human relationships were analyzed. Firstly, the needs of users’ in open spaces in hierarchical order were examined. The physical, social, and psychological needs were discussed. Basically; the weather conditions, quality of open space, and supplemental units for physiological needs define the physical comfort level on open space usage. Additionally, stationary activities generate a favorable effect on quality of open space by supporting the surveillance mechanism. Active and passive engagements are notable factors on communal life. Communication with other users and engagement with environment satisfy social needs and raise the quality level of open space. Relaxation and discovery are significant psychological needs in open spaces. Relation with natural materials in open space helps to relaxation. In the second part of the chapter, behavioral mechanisms were evaluated. For a comprehensive examination of open spaces in housing settlements, beside physical features of space, the socio-psychological mechanisms of interaction of human-environment should be analyzed. Territory, personal space, privacy, and place attachment were examined as mechanisms which control human-environment and human-human relationships. Territory, personal space, privacy, and place attachment balance the relation of human-nature and human-human. Territory defines a place where defend and claimed by users. Precise and accurate definition of territories generates active and qualified social relationships. Personal space means an unvisible balloon that helps to generate communal relationships. Gestures, facial expressions, types of activity, and users’ personal relations in community form the personal distance. Privacy expresses an opportunity to decide to communicate or not to other users. It serves the function of limited and protected communication. Place attachment is a process that contains the relationships between usage and ownership. It consists of elements of person, place, and process. In the end of the chapter, human behaviors were examined. Effects of behavior setting on environment and notion of edge effect were discussed. In the fourth chapter of thesis, there is a case study that is produced in Amsterdam and Copenhagen. This case study aims to evaluate the theoretical data through the actual housing settlements which is built in the second half of 20th century. The selection criterions of housing settlements are architectural period, urban strategy, density conditions, socio-economic diversity, and interaction of human-environment. Three periods in 20th century and process of production of mass housing were examined to understand the evolution of open spaces in housing settlements. In the World War I and Great Depression period transformation of urban patterns and effect of modernism were revealed. After the World War II mass production, modernism domination, and the notion of “high density- low rise” that is constituted against to modernism were displayed. In the liberalisation period; the transformation of city centers, rehabilitation process, and effects of petrol crisis on suburbanization were summarized. Amsterdam and Copenhagen’s urban development strategies were discussed. “Three Canal Plan” in 17th century and “FingerPlan” were revealed to understand how city and housing patterns are transformed. Finally, the cases that contain the spatial analysis and qualitative data of fourteen housing settlements were displayed. Fourteen housing settlements were analyzed throughout the criterias which constitute in the theorotical part of the thesis. In the last part of the chapter, the consequences of case study were examined. Additionally, the numerical data of housing settlements were compared to understand potentials and deficiency of each settlements. In the final chapter of thesis; assist by the evaluation of theoretical data and consequences of case study, some clues that is needed to be considered in design of housing settlements were displayed.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
toplu konut, açık alanlar, mekân kullanımı, davranış biçimleri, housing, open spaces, space use, behavioral pattern
Alıntı