Kentdışı alışveriş merkezleri üzerine bir araştırma

Beygo, Cem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmanın amacı, kent dışı yeni alışveriş merkezlerinin - sundukları bazı avantajlara rağmen - MİA işlevlerinin ne kadarını yüklenebildiklerine yönelik saptamalar yapmaktır. Çalışma dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde konunun seçilme nedeni, amaç, kapsam ve çalışmadan izlenen yol açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde kavramsal tanımlamalara yer verilmiştir. açıklamalar ve Üçüncü bölümde, ekonomisi gelişmiş ülkelerden, ABD örneği incelenmiş ve İstanbul'a özel durumu saptayabilmek için gerçekleştirilen özgün araştırma sonuçlarının değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır. Dördüncü ve son bölüm, ikinci ve üçüncü bölümde yeralan bilgilerin ışığında yeni alışveriş merkezlerinin eğilimlerinin irdelendiği sonuç bölümüdür.
The Central Business District (CBD) is the area where the trade activities (shops, offices, etc.,), the pedestrian and motor traffic are most densely circulates in a metropolitan city. Some specialized activities which do not exist in other areas of the city are also found in the district. CBD, which is also described in urban literature as "the organ which keeps the city alive", continuously effects the urban development in relation to its potential and complex structure. Kapalıçarşı (Covered Bazaar) and its environment in istanbul have been the oldest and the busiest center of Istanbul since the 14. th century. From 1960s onwards, the variety of trade activities and difference in the population have gained acceleration and residence population in this area eventually decreased. Fringes of Şişli, Beşiktaş, Barbaros Boulevard following the spurt of Karaköy, Tünel- Taksim have mingled at Zincirlikuyu and spread out to Maslak direction. Despite all these developments, certain features of the center continue to remain specially in Kapalıçarşı and the commercial environment within the limits of Eminönü county. By this thesis, "A Research on the Shopping Centers in Suburban Areas" aims at determining how much of the CBD functions which is an important standard in the completion of the process of urban development, can be provided by those new shopping centers. And to pave the VI way to future studies on the subject and assist the studies on urban planning development in Istanbul Metropolitan City. Trade is described as "the whole activities necessary for transferring product to the consumers" In classification and examination of trade, which plays the role of a mediator between the producers and consumers three different approaches can be used: Classification according to the quantity of the sold products. Classification of trade according to its functions Classification according to the scale and financial structure of the establishment. For European cities, trade has been a symbol of the city from the 10. th century onward. Therefore the largest cities of that era have been developed intersections of the trade roads. With the migration from the agricultural areas to the urban areas, following the economical and technological revolution in the 19. th century, trade gained new aspects. The city dimensions suddenly went beyond its existing limits. The growing population in the cities following the industrial revolution caused the formation of the new trade systems such as "Department Stores". CBD is a characteristic area busy with the activities that are not found in other areas of the city and mixture of various types of foundations. Many activities in CBD can be found in other areas of the city as well, but the frequency of the use in CBD is much higher. CBD of a metropolitan city is the brain of the city and all the metropolitan area, the power of public is gathered here. Decisions which will effect the future of the city, its environment, even the future of the country are taken in this area. In this respect, this area is also responsible for the decision making coordination and the control functions. Besides all its complex business organizations and financial institutions, this area is a place where culture is created and spread within its limits. Vli In the interior structure of the cities, the priority of the elements and the functions which give the city its identification CBD is a place where the land use and the spatial modeling of the urban population developed. Retail sales and services are determined and transport and shopping models developed. Cities are places supported by basic activities that are determined by regional, national and international economic systems according to relative advantages. Although various types of land use are included in CBD, they cannot all be considered as the real uses of CBD, such as wholesale trade. In the same manner, although industry and residences are inside the CBD, they are not the characteristic elements. According to Rannells, wholesales, manufacturing industry, light industry and workshops should not be included in CBD. He worries that industrial areas will lose their individual central characteristic due to non-central industry density in certain areas. İstanbul CBD provides profitable services both to Istanbul and Anatolia and its situation as one of the most important foreign trade center, local characteristics in CBD changes in relation to international standards and industrialization-urbanization process of the country which is also reflected in the physical formation. When the population moved out to suburbs in the U.S.A., there occurred an -urgent- demand for shopping facilities in these areas. Since all the shopping facilities would have served to people living within a few kilometers radius, this movement had, first of all, to solve the car park problem to be successful. As a result, the commercial development in suburbs created small neighborhood centers consisting of a supermarket, a pharmacy and a number of service shops in the 1940's. The early 1950's saw the formation of regional centers. The 60's brought the concept of closed mall. In the 70's shopping industry investments increased continuously because of their image as a branch where companies were able to obtain returns in a relatively short time thanks to the continuously raising population in suburbs. During that decade, over 2,000 new shopping centers opened in the USA. VIII The assumption behind the Ecological Development Theory, as established by Hawley and developed by Kasarda, is that population and economic activities form only routine contacts with the center as they spread from the center to the surroundings. If the system becomes more and more open and multi-centralized, the parallel between the expansion of ribbon areas and development of the core may be broken down. What was the main problem was not insufficient resources, but shifting of the most of the population and economic resources from CBD to the fringes throughout the expansion process of the metropolitan cities. Planning experts have been encountering a particular dilemma in the USA.; on one hand they should develop cities in such a manner to meet socio-economic and psychological needs of urban people, and on the other hand they should make the planning attractive in terms of economic conditions in order to obtain funds from private and public sectors for these purposes. Apart from the city's magnitude, significant effects that affect service distribution between the CBD and other parts of the metropolitan city in the USA., as determined by Smith, are as follows. However, one should remember that weight of each effect depends on local situation HIGHWAY PROGRAMS ACCESS AND PARKING AUTOMOBILE AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION TRENDS URBAN RENEWAL AUTOMATION: INVESTMENT CLIMATE STANDARD OF LIVING ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES Although cities provided particular benefits, still there were some problems. It was not easy to persuade people to get off their cars even in the suburbs. Parking problem within the city is more frightful than the transportation one. A new parking lot must provide parking space for all cars that will come Saturday before the new year's eve. Thus it become necessary to forget same level crossings between the parking lot and stores. The basic problem had to do with the down town where land prices were high, building garages was expensive; IX but such services should have been free of charge and safe. 1960 saw researches conducted on the down town. Figures showed that down town investments were profitable. After the suburban shopping centers had increased to break all records in the 1970's, their incomes began to fall. Restrictions on building new roads, ever decreasing virgin lands outside the city, ruthless competition and ecological restrictions on the surrounding areas got heavier and heavier on the investors' shoulders. Investors interested in suburban centers began to think about the areas within the city. According to Taubman, revaluation of the down town areas stem from the "economic reality". Innercities provided a finished infrastructure. City's facilities, central inhabitancy, developing public transportation systems and high population density began to chase the negative clouds away. Investments in the down town were relatively far from ruthless competition. In time, investors, city governors and planning experts reached an agreement on what were good for the down town, and many models were produced in ten years. Such examples as San Bernardino, Springfield, Baystate West and Worchester achieved to reach a particular level. Local goverments who supported down town programs in St. Paul, San Diego, Portland and Baltimore become incredibly successful, and progressed their politic careers. According to the surveys, we have done, fast food service rate in the Kapalıçarşı is 2 %, in the Galleria. These rates indicate Food Court effects the demand. whereas it is 21 % that the Galleria According to the results of the questionnaires answered by pedestrians, 44 % of the visitors to the Galleria are younger than 25 years. In the meantime, 44 % of them are unmarried. 72 % of them come from the Istanbul side, and 60 % of them visit the Galleria in intervals of maximum 15 days. These data indicate that food and recreational facilities of this shopping center is highly favored by young people who live in the nearby areas and who suffer the lack of a recreation-oriented quality physical environment. ?a» 100 % of the families who visited this center stated that the most important factor that bring them is their children's need of entertainment. 68 % of them prefer to visit it at weekends. This fact indicates the attractive force of recreational supply too. Questionnaires answered by the retail sales stores' managers reflect that shopping activities are higher (96 %) at weekends. This is due to the fact that the center is open Sundays. 20 % of the retail stores stated that their main purpose to establish business here is advertising and promotion. Expectation of demand caused by the design, which the shopping center was planned as a complex containing hotels and offices integrally, effected the situation at a rate of % 12. It is clearly understood now that the metropolitan cities' functions should be reviewed again. Although there are some affections and interests confusing with each other, it is increasingly desired to find the path to the future. And this is an opportunity to establish rational, balanced and profitable relations between the metropolitan cities and their CBD's. Ever expanding cities force the local governments review their long-established concepts about their own purposes and functions. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct detailed and up-to-dated data analysis on the structural change of the metropolitan cities, to focus especially on factors that getting the city's economic problems heavier. It is not possible to estimate the future requirements by statistics. Historic development may continue in the future, but planning process should contain change of the historic trends in favor of the public interests. With regard to determination of the agenda and prevention of some local problems from going public, impact of the business on the local politics appears to be an empirical question by itself. CBD's specialization as an important "decision and control organ", in addition to the development of high-end XI equipment which would meet the needs of increasing population in the area in question, broke the balance between the compounds of the area that could protect its functional and structural integrity throughout the historic process, and disabled its tissue to fall in step with quick developments and changes observed in the functional structure. Therefore, the CBD activities occurred as new shopping centers in the fringes of the USA cities, which have developed economy. The main problem had to do with down town. In the down town, land was limited and very expensive. Demand for a high quality space where safety and comfort needs of the pedestrian areas within the city could be met occurred again in the 1980's. The solution turned out to be arranging pedestrian and motor vehicle traffic in favor of pedestrians in a balanced manner, and to enable this environment to unite with retail trade. In Türkiye, researches conducted on characteristics of new shopping centers (such as the Galleria in Ataköy) in suburbs outside the CBD, first constructed in Istanbul, indicate that demand by the business owners in this area is "prestige" oriented. In general, it has nothing to do with the process observed in the USA., especially with the selection of low priced lands in the ribbon areas of the USA cities, at all. The area in question was owned by the public, arranged as an open field, overlooking to sea view, used by people as a beach, and was very precious. Selection of it as a location had nothing to do with its convenience for commercial activities. Utilization of this shopping center that is located in an area with a wide landscape but that has nothing to do with the latter turned out to be for catering and entertainment services, especially at weekends. Traditional CBD (Kapalıçarşı)still has an increasing importance in Istanbul. Healthy development of the traditional CBD should be planned and arranged in Istanbul in accordance with the development of business and services. Basic element of activities in this field is retail sales. Retail sales, manufacturing industry that feeds them (except for original production workshops) and passive office services may take place at fringes where transportation services should be rendered. However, continuum of the Istanbul's CBD activities should not be ignored, but supported by all possible means. Xli It is not possible to estimate the future requirements by statistics. Historic development may continue as future-oriented, but the planning process should include changing of the historic trends to the favor of public. In order to prevent socio-economic and physical environment losses which may happen due to incorrect evaluations, the present situation of Istanbul, with all of its elements gained throughout its history, should be protected, and haphazard decisions that may be made without knowing Istanbul and its needs should be avoided.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
alışveriş merkezleri, kent dışı yerleşim alanları, shopping centers, out of settlement area