Kentsel sit niteliklerinin mekansal istatistik yöntemleriyle tanımlanması

dc.contributor.advisor Koramaz, Turgay Kerem
dc.contributor.author Özdemir, Zeynep
dc.contributor.authorID 502132808
dc.contributor.department Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
dc.date.accessioned 2022-12-30T09:22:30Z
dc.date.available 2022-12-30T09:22:30Z
dc.date.issued 2021-02-12
dc.description Tez(Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021
dc.description.abstract Teknolojinin gelişmesiyle kentler hem kendi içlerinde hem de diğer kentlerle etkileşimleri ile farklılıkların ortaya çıktığı hızlı bir değişim ve dönüşüm içine girmişlerdir. Kentte yaşayan bireylerin eğitim seviyeleri, meslekleri, statüleri, yaşam tarzları, yaşadıkları konutun ve çevrenin özellikleri, konutun konumu ve çevredeki arazi değerleri, ulaşım alt yapı durumu, konut ya da ticaret bölgesinin merkeze erişilebilirlik durumu, bireylerin yaşadıkları mekana bağlılıkları, hemşehrilik, akrabalık ilişkileri, ortak değerleri ile bir bütün olarak sosyo-ekonomik yapıyı oluşturduğu görülmektedir. Tarihsel süreçten günümüze bu değişkenler doğrultusunda kentsel mekanda toplumların birbirinden farklı şekillerde ayrıştığı görülmektedir. Bu ayrışma genellikle yaş, cinsiyet, gelir, kültür, eğitim, statü, dil, din, ırk, etnisite, alışkanlıklar, gelenekler, tercih ve önyargılar gibi faktörlerin belirleyiciliğinde kentin çeşitli bölgelerinde gerçekleşmektedir. Böylelikle kentin farklı yerlerinde kümelenen farklı gruplar birbirlerini etkilemeye başlamışlardır. Bu etkileşimle birlikte literatürde alan bazlı yenileme programlarına katılma isteğini paylaşma durumu olan ve komşuluk etkisi diye adlandırılan, aynı mahallede bulunan bireylerin, birbirlerini sosyo-kültürel açıdan olumlu ya da olumsuz olarak etkilediği bir süreç de ortaya çıkmaktadır. Buradan anlaşılacağı üzere; kentleşme sürecinde kaçınılmaz olarak sosyal ve mekansal yapıda farklılaşmalar ve ayrışmalar görülmektedir. Kentsel mekanda yaşanan ayrışma ve farklılaşmalar kentlerde güvenlik, sağlıklı olmayan yaşam alanları, sosyal dışlanma, kirlilik, bütünleşememe, bir arada yaşayamama gibi çeşitli sorunların yaşanmasına sebep olmaktadır. Özellikle tarihi kentsel alanlarda farklılaşan kentsel doku; çalışmanın konusunu oluşturan sit alanında, koruma ve planlama sınırının belirlenmesinde önemli bir etken olarak görülmektedir. Bu sebeple tarihi kentlerde sit ve etkileme geçiş bölgesi sınırı belirlenirken bu alanlarda yaşayanların hane halkı profilleri ile sosyo-ekonomik yapılarının da göz önünde bulundurulması bütünleşik koruma açısından gereklidir. Koruma alanında yaşayan nüfusun aykırılıkları ya da kümelendiği değişkenlerinin mekandaki temsiliyetlerine göre etkin koruma kararları alınması planlama mesleği açısından oldukça önemlidir. Tez çalışmasının amacı; kentlerde sosyo- ekonomik ve mekansal farklılıkları kentsel sit üzerinden değerlendirerek tarihi kentsel alanlarda sosyo-mekansal ayrışma kavramını incelemektir. Böylelikle; tarihi çevre ve çeper mahallelerin birbirleri ile olan etkileşimleri üzerinden korunması gereken mevcut etkileme geçiş bölgesi ve sit alanı sınırının mevcut tarihi dokuyu yansıtıp yansıtmadığını mekansal istatistik yöntemleriyle ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaç çerçevesinde, sosyo-mekansal ayrışma kavramı ve kentlerde sosyo-mekansal ayrışmanın ölçülmesinde kullanılan yöntemler ve değişkenler üzerinden literatür taraması yapılmış ve özgün araştırma geliştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın yöntemi olarak; yoğunlaşmayı tespit etmek için kullanılan 'Location Quotient (LQ)' ve kümelenmeyi tespit etmek için kullanılan mekansal otokorelasyon yöntemi olan sıcak (hot spots) ve soğuk (cold spots) noktaları belirlemeye yarayan 'Getis- Ord Gi*' ve kentteki kümelenmeyi ve aykırı değerleri tespit etmek için 'Anselin Yerel Moran's I' mekansal istatistiği yöntemleri uygulanmıştır. Bu yöntemlerin uygulanma koşulları incelenmiş ve yöntemleri uygulamak için Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma için örneklem alanı olarak tarihi kentsel özellikleri bakımından niteliğini günümüze dek taşıyan Kastamonu kenti seçilmiştir. Kastamonu kentinin seçilme nedeni alansal ve yapısal özellikleri ile bütünlüğünü koruyan ve yerleşim özellikleriyle zengin ve geniş bir alana yayılmış bir tarihi kentsel alana sahip olmasıdır. Sosyal açıdan incelendiğinde ise; hızlı kentleşme ve teknolojinin gelişmesiyle değişen ekonomik politikalar çerçevesinde mekanda yer seçimlerinin değişmeye uğradığı görülmüştür. Böylelikle gelir durumu yüksek olan grupların köhnemiş ve teknolojiye ayak uyduramayan tarihi kent merkezinden kentin çeperlerine doğru kümelendiği, gelir durumu düşük olanların ise kent merkezi ve çevresinde yoğunlaştığı görülmektedir. Kastamonu kentinde de gözlemlenen ve çalışmanın sonuçlarında ortaya konan mekansal farklılaşmalara rağmen sosyal yapı özellikleri bakımından hala kuvvetli kültürel bağ, aitlik ve topluluk bilincine sahip olması çalışma alanı olarak seçilmesindeki en önemli zenginliklerinden biridir. Kentte gözlemlenen bu farklılıklar çerçevesinde çalışmanın özgün bölümünde; kentsel ayrışmanın belirlenebilmesi için incelenen değişkenler üzerinden sosyo-mekansal ayrışma; yapısal özellikler ve hane-halkı profili ve konutu kullanım özellikleri olarak iki başlık altında incelenmiştir. Kastamonu kentindeki koruma çalışmalarında mevcut sit sınırının ve etkileme geçiş bölgesi sınırının, alanın tarihi kentsel niteliğini yansıtan nitelikte olup olmadığı ve planlama çalışmalarında herkesin ihtiyacına cevap veren kararların alınabilmesi için, belirlenen değişkenler üzerinden elde edilen mekansal çözümlemeler incelenmiştir. Bütünleşmiş bir koruma ve planlama için; Kastamonu tarihi kentinde sosyo-mekansal ayrışmanın varlığı, yapısal özellikler ve hane halkı profili ve konutu kullanım özellikleri bakımından farklı değişkenler üzerinden mekansal istatistik yöntemleriyle tespit edilebilmiştir. Tarihi kentsel alanda yapılan koruma uygulamalarının alanın sosyo-ekonomik özellikleri ve yapı kalitesi açısından durumu göz önünde bulundurularak temsil gücü daha yüksek, katılım sürecini kapsayan nitelikte olması önerilmektedir. 'Kentsel Sit Niteliklerinin Mekansal İstatistik Yöntemleriyle Tanımlanması' konulu bu tez çalışması, kentsel sit alanlarında geliştirilecek olan uygulamalarda karar vericilerin hangi analitik yöntemleri kullanmaları gerektiği ile ilgili rehber niteliği taşımaktadır. Aynı zamanda tarihi çevrelerde yaşayanlar için aynı zamanda sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel özelliklerin dikkate alınarak uygun müdahale ve programların belirlenmesine, gerçekçi ve uygulanabilir kararların alınmasına yardımcı olacaktır.
dc.description.abstract In the last decade, cities have been in a rapid change in which differences arise, both among themselves and different quarters within each of them. These differences, that reflect on living spaces, create an explicit segregation, and significant challenges for urban planning practices. It is observed that the socio-economic structure of city is influenced by education and occupation level of citizens, their professions, status, lifestyles, characteristics and location of the house and close environment, land values, transportation infrastructure, accessibility to the central areas, place attachment of the individuals, fellow-citizenship, blood relations and common values. From past to present, societies are seen to have segregated in urban space depending on such variables. This segregation usually takes place in various regions of the city with the impact of such factors as age, sex, income level, culture, education, status, language, religion, race, ethnicity, habitudes, traditions, preferences and biases. Some types of segregation occur in the form of an organized action. Some are defined in economic terms, some are related to lifestyles and some are relevant to individuals desires and preferences. But sometimes groups become obliged to live in underdeveloped parts of the city without any preference or they cluster in certain areas because of state policies. Thus, clustered different groups in separate areas of the city start to affect each either positively or negatively in terms of socio-cultural aspects and creat the neighbourhood effect which means sharing the demand to participate in area-based programs. Considering the issue of urban segregation in Turkey, there have arisen differences in expectations, lifestyles and use of services in between a certain group and the other groups in all cities of Turkey based on the many independent variables and particularly by rapid urbanization and the relevant rural-urban migration. Consequently, cities today have transformed into living areas that characterized by co-habitation of different cultures. Such differences do not create obstacle in case of co-habitation in secure and healthy environments; however, the differentiated socio-economic structure causes many problems because of contradiction of lifestyles, life expectations and culture, and different opinions on religion. Consequently social and spatial differentiations and segregations occur. These socio-spatial segregations and differences trigger problems in cities such as insecurity, unhealthy living environments, social exclusion, lack of integration and not living together in harmony. This urban pattern especially in historical environments is considered as an important element in determination of conservation planning boundaries which are the subject matter of this study. Therefore, it is necessary to consider household profiles and socio-economic structures of the residents to achieve integrated conservation while determining the site boundary and buffer zone of conservation site in historical cities. Whether the profile sharing the site boundary is homogenous or segregated may produce various dynamics. It is particularly important for the planning professionals to make effective conservation decisions considering representation of segregation or clustering of the population living in the conservation area. Therefore, it is essential to establish socio-economic dynamics of the population in the relevant conservation sites, and determine conservation planning decisions in line with such dynamics. For this reason, it is important to find out social segregation of households (assimilation, differentiations) and measurable parts of the neighborhood effect through socio-spatial analysis of the relevant site. Turkey has many cities with urban conservation sites, and these cities face with many problems from distribution of spatial thresholds and features to registration of the conservation sites. Considering the state policies on conservation planning programs, it is particularly known that there are certain problems of establishing spatial boundary in historical urban settlements. As in the planning process, urban conservation studies also require to be paid attention to its elements such as; household profiles, cultural and socio-economic status ect. during the conservation planning process not only spatial data but also socio-economic data are needed to determine to highlight the requirements of the conservation site area boundary and assessment of their features. Therefore, this study aims to examine the concept of socio-spatial segregation in historical urban settlements by evaluating the socio-economic and spatial changes through the cities of historic features. Moreover the key goal is to understand whether the site boundary reflects on the current historical pattern in terms of the physical and socio-economic characteristics of the neighborhoods located within the current conservation site, buffer zone of conservation site and peripheries through spatial statistical methods. The relevant targets are as follows: 1. To examine spatial characteristics of the historical urban settlements in terms of differing and resembling physical, socio-economic and cultural features; 2. To establish similar or different variables of the population living in historical urban settlements in terms of household profile and socio-economic features; 3. To examine whether the current conservation site and its buffer zone boundaries reflect the historical urban pattern or not. Existing literature has been evaluated regarding to targets provided above and a specific research was develop to measure socio-spatial segregation in cities with several variables through using spatial statistical methods. Three different methods are used in this study. First of all 'Location Quotient (LQ)' was used to determine concentration in the study areas. Secondly, 'Getis-Ord Gi* also known as Hot Spots Analysis', which is a tool of spatial autocorrelation, is used to reveal clustering. Thirdly, 'Anselin Local Moran's I' spatial statistics also known as the Cluster and Outlier Analysis is operated to identify spatial clusters of features with high or low value. Lastly, Geographic Information System is the main software to implement all these methods. Kastamonu was chosen as a study area due to existing spatial and structural characteristics of historical urban pattern. Especially, its urban site area is spread on large area in terms of registered buildings and conservation. Moreover, it is the one of city in Turkey where conversation plan was built and its legacy still remains. From the social perspective, it is observed high income households stayed in the houses in good conditions at the city center which was also the center of business and social life; however, location choices went through a change in line with the increasing population, technological developments and changing economic policies. As a result, people with higher income left the outdated from historical city center, and started to settle in peripheries, while the people with lower level of income concentrated in and around the city center. Subsequently, social segregation became more evident in cities, upper class developed a tendency to live in gated communities. Following the literature review focusing on such changes in the city, the socio-spatial segregation was examined under two titles namely (i) structural features and and (ii) household profile and residential use characteristics. In order to associate the spatial segregation dimensions in Kastamonu for a better understanding the issue; the city was divided into grids of 150m x 150m through the Geographic Information System software (ArcGIS 10.5, Spatial Analyst Tool) in a manner to cover the smallest city block. Afterwards, distribution of traditional buildings (masonry, masonry stone) and distribution of buildings with low structural quality were analyzed by applying LQ, Getis-Ord Gi* and Anselin Local Moran's I spatial statistic methods in line with the information and data on urban conservation site, buffer zone of conservation site and peripheries. It is investigated that whether the current conservation site and buffer zone boundaries reflect on the historical urban quality of the area in the conservation and urban plans of Kastamonu. Also, general characteristics of the buildings with low structural quality were examined, and areas that need a conservation and planning program within the conservation site additionally buffer zone of conservation site were interpreted based on the maps obtained aforementioned residential use analysis. Regarding urban segregation in terms of household profile and residential use characteristics; firstly, it was found necessary to examine household profile of Kastamonu in socio-cultural and economic terms and over the measurable parts of the neighborhood effect. Therefore, a site survey was conducted in Kastamonu. Household profiles and residential use characteristics as well as socio-economic and spatial similarities and differences were examined for conservation site, buffer zone of conservation site and peripheries based on the data obtained from the site survey. In the original research of thesis, spatial autocorrelation methods were used to determine concentration, clustering and differentiation level of such segregation. In this way, certain changes were recommended for conservation site and buffer zone of conservation site boundaries in line with the conducted studies. Spatial characteristics of the urban conservation site with differing physical, socio-economic and cultural features were investigated. It was established that whether there is a socio-spatial segregation within and around the site boundary. Distribution of variables which were laid down considering the different use of bandwidths and neighborhood effect – as an effect of spatial scale – was revealed in the historical city center of Kastamonu. Lastly, in view of the socio-economic (etc.) similarities or differences in between the conservation site and its buffer zone, it was evaluated that whether the current site boundary reflect the historical urban quality of the area in the relevant conservation and planning studies. As a result of the research, increase in concrete buildings towards to the north and south peripheries of historical urban center also influence on urban space as socio-economic pattern. Also, the higher level of socio-economic households accumulates in these areas. On the other hand, people who have lower income and education level and have no access to social security mainly live in the east and west peripheries of the city. Therefore, urban planning policies need to consider cultural, economic and living standards as well as households preferences who especially live in these areas. Attachment to the place, feeling safe and identity and neighbor relations are seen as positive and strong in the east and west side of historical urban center. Moreover, due to high level of citizenship at Honsalar neighborhood, it is recommended that to consider socio-cultural relations while developing urban planning decisions. However, it is also found that high income and education level households live in these areas. Defining both the spatial and socio-economic conditions of historical urban areas enhance quality of life, create well planned living environment and meet the demands for all levels of the society. As a result, urban planning practices can be led in terms of comprehensive and applicable urban conservation site and development plan. Spatial segregation in Kastamonu, and areas where traditional buildings and buildings with low quality structural features; and age, social security, income and education status, feeling safe and identity, sense of environment protection..ect. household profiles and usage characteristics are clustered across the city were determined by making use of spatial statistical methods for more integrated conservation and design. It is proposed that the future urban conservation and development plans should be more representative and appealing to the residents of the area by considering both the socio-economic situation of the area and structural quality. This thesis which focuses on 'Definition of Urban Conservation Site Features by Spatial Statistical Methods' aims to provide a guiding contribution about which analytical methods should be used by decision-makers for the plans on conservation sites. It is also considered that the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the residents living in urban historical settlements of the historical environment to decide the most suitable program would lead to more realistic and applicable urban plans.
dc.description.degree Doktora
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/20582
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü
dc.sdg.type none
dc.subject kentsel koruma
dc.subject urban conservation
dc.subject kentsel koruma alanlar
dc.subject urban conservation areas
dc.subject mekansal ayrışma
dc.subject spatial segregation
dc.title Kentsel sit niteliklerinin mekansal istatistik yöntemleriyle tanımlanması
dc.title.alternative Definition of urban conservation site features by spatial statistical methods
dc.type doctoralThesis
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