Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramvay hattı projesi coğrafi bilgi sistemi (CBS) tabanlı güzergah analizi ve gelişimi

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Tarih
2020
Yazarlar
Uzun, Sait Buğra
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Özet
Kalabalık şehirlerin en büyük problemlerinin başında ulaşım sorunu gelmektedir. Dünyadaki bütün büyük şehirlerde olduğu gibi ülkemizin de en yüksek nüfusa sahip şehirlerinden biri olan İstanbul aynı sorunla mücadele etmeye çalışmakta, çözümü için yatırımlar yapmaktadır. Ancak yüksek maliyeti olan ulaşım yatırımları titizlikle çalışarak yapılmalı, mümkün olan en az harcama ile en fazla verim alınmaya çalışılmalıdır. Bundan dolayı halkın talepleri iyi değerlendirilmelidir. Halkın talepleri ve eğilimleri doğrultusunda yatırımı gerçekleştirilecek olan ulaştırma projelerinden en iyi fayda sağlanabilmektedir. Birçok sektörde faydalanıldığı gibi ulaştırma sektöründe de verilerin etkili bir şekilde analiz edilmesine coğrafi bilgi sisteminin katkısı göz ardı edilemez. Özellikle ulaştırma projelerinde güzergâh boyunca gerçekleştirilecek analizlerde işlenecek verilerin konumsal veriler ile kritik ilişkilerinin olması coğrafi bilgi sistemini ulaştırma projelerinde daha önemli bir konuma getirmektedir. Bir ulaştırma projesinde en önemli safha olan güzergâh seçimi gerçekleştirilirken kullanılacak olan yolculuk talebi, nüfus yoğunluğu, diğer ulaşım sistemleri ile uyum, okul ve kamu kurumlarına ayrıca sanayi ve ticaret alanlarına yakınlık verilerinin konumsal veri olmadan anlamlandırılması beklenemez. Aynı zamanda konumsal niteliğe sahip veriler birbirlerinden farklı önem derecelerine sahiptirler. Ulaştırma sektöründe faaliyet gösteren uzmanların görüşleri alınarak çok kriterli karar verme yöntemleriyle faktörlerin önem dereceleri ve ağırlık puanları belirlenir. Belirlenen ağırlık puanları konumsal verilerle eşlenerek coğrafi bilgi sistemi yazılım programlarıyla analizin gerçekleştirilmesi sağlanır. Bu verilerin en iyi şekilde analiz edilerek, ulaştırma projelerinde güzergâh seçiminin gerçekleştirilebilmesi için çok kriterli karar verme yöntemleri ve coğrafi bilgi sistemleri karar vericilerin en büyük yardımcısıdır. Mevcut duruma bakıldığı zaman 2019 verilerine göre İstanbul'da toplu taşıma içerisinde raylı sistemlerin payı %18,6'dır. Hayata geçirilen metro, tramvay, Marmaray vb. projelerle birlikte şehir içi ulaşımda raylı sistemlerin payı artmıştır. Ancak İstanbul gibi büyük şehirlerdeki trafik sorununa raylı sistem projelerinin çözüm olabilmesi için bu oran yeterli değildir. Raylı sistem hatları arttırılmalı ve şehirde yaşayan her birey için raylı sistemler ulaşılabilir hale getirilmelidir. Bundan dolayı ilk yapım maliyeti, karayolu yapım maliyetine göre çok daha yüksek olan raylı sistemlerin güzergâhları iyi analiz edilmelidir. Yapım öncesi iyi analiz edilememiş olan raylı sistem güzergâhları istenen sonucu sağlayamayacak, şehir trafiğine olumlu etkisi gözlenemeyecektir. Bu kapsamda İstanbul'da ulaşımı, güzergâhının geçtiği bölgelerde büyük oranda rahatlatacağı düşünülen Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramvay hattının önemi çok fazladır. Gerek güzergâhın geçtiği turistik ve tarihi bölgeler, gerekse nüfusun yoğun olduğu bölgeler ve ticaret alanları düşünüldüğünde bu düşüncenin yanlış olduğunu söylemek xviii güç olur. Bu tezin amacı İstanbul'un T5 hattı olarak isimlendirilen ve inşa aşamasında olan Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramvay hattı ulaştırma projesini çok kriterli karar verme yöntemlerinden biri olan Analitik Hiyerarşi Yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenen faktörlerin hesaplanan önem dereceleri ve her bir faktörün içerisinde konumsal verilere göre belirlenen ağırlık puanı öznitelik bilgilerinin, konumsal verilerin nitelik tablosuna coğrafi bilgi sistemi tabanlı yazılım programları kullanarak işlemek, çok yönlü bir şekilde bilimsel olarak analiz etmek ve tramvay hattının ortaya koyacağı olumlu etkilerin nedenlerini bilimsel gerçeklerle beraber göstermektir. Bu hattın analizi ile beraber Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramvay hattının bir kolu olarak planlanan ve projelendirme safhasında olan Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramvay hattı uzatmasının olumlu yönlerini aynı yöntemlerden faydalanarak göstermektir. Son olarak Eminönü – Alibeyköy ve Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramvay hatlarının analizlerini gerçekleştirirken kullanılan yöntemlerle Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramvay hattıyla bağlantılı yeni tramvay hattı için güzergâh araştırması sonucu karar verilen yeni tramvay güzergâhını öneri olarak sunmaktır.
Transportation problem is one of the biggest problem for crowded cities. Like all of grand cities in the world, Istanbul is one of the highest population in Turkey which try to struggle with same problem and transportation investments are made by administration of Istanbul to solve transportation problems. However, transportation investments should be realized carefully due to need high cost to construct transportation system. Each participant should be worked to get maximum efficiency with minimum cost. To get maximum efficiency, demands of people living in Istanbul should be evaluated well. If transportation project can be applied according to demands and trends of people, the city can be get maximum efficiency from transportation project. Deciding among many options is really hard process to decision makers for all topics. Some methods have been developed in many years to choose best option. With these methods, decision making process is easier than for decision makers. One of the most used methods is Analytical Hierarchy Process. This method is one of multi-criteria decision making methods. Analytical Hierarchy Process was developed by Thomas L. Saaty in 1970s. Decision makers generally use this method for both transportation and other sectors. Travel demands, population density, integration to other transportation systems, proximity to industry and trade areas, proximity to public and educational facilities, and slope factors are determined with Analytical Hierarchy Process according to opinions of transportation sector experts. Importance level and weight of determined factors are calculated with Analytical Hierarchy Process. As used in many sectors, geographical information system has huge contribution to analysis data efficiently in transportation sector. Especially in transportation projects, data to be used in analysis has critical relation with spatial data along transportation system alignment. For this reason, geographical information system software has important role in transportation projects because geographical information system software has ability to work with spatial data. Selection of alignment is most important phase for transportation projects. When choosing transportation system alignment, travel demands, population density, integration to other transportation systems, proximity to industry and trade areas, proximity to public and educational facilities, and slope data play significant role. On the other hand, these data are not logical and cannot be evaluated without spatial data. Geographical information system software is the main assistant to analyze with best way for selection of transportation system route. When current situation is evaluated, according to 2019's data, usage ratio of railway systems in public transportation is 18,6% in Istanbul. Total length of railway lines is 230 kilometers with 6 metro, 4 tramway, 2 funicular, 2 cable car, and suburban lines xx in Istanbul. In last decade, many new railway projects as metro, tramway, Marmaray etc. are constructed in Istanbul. With these new railway projects, usage ratio of railway systems has been increased. Unfortunately, number of constructed railway lines is not enough to solve traffic jams problems in big cities like Istanbul. Railway lines should be like spider web and railway systems should be constructed in every region in cities. Number of railway system lines in cities should be increased and railway systems should be accessible for each person. Due to initial construction cost of railway systems is higher than initial construction cost of highway; railway alignment should be well analyzed to eliminate additional cost. Except additional cost effects, if railway alignment does not well analyze before the construction starts, positive effects on traffic jams cannot be observed. So desired results cannot be reached by administrator of cities. Although a lot of railway systems work in Istanbul, these are not enough to solve transportation problem. On the other hand, both Istanbul and population of Istanbul increase every day. Therefore, Istanbul needs new railway system investments to prevent chaos which is created by high population in city. Increasing number and type of railway systems are main solution to solve transportation problems. These railway system investments should be built quickly. Therefore, railway systems investments always should be gone on without any interruption to increase the ratio of travel with railway system in Istanbul. If new railway investments evaluate, Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line has significant role because alignment of this line passes through in the crowded areas of the city. In addition, there are a lot of touristic and historical area, high population density, and trade areas around alignment of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line. If all properties of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line evaluate together, importance of this tramway line reappears. When Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line starts to work, positive effects of this line will be seen on traffic. The other positive effect is cost. According to metro project, infrastructure cost of tramway projects is cheaper than infrastructure cost of metro projects. This infrastructure cost affects project duration in parallel. If infrastructure cost of project increases, project duration increases. Due to infrastructure cost of tramway project is less than infrastructure cost of metro project, completion duration of tramway project is less than completion duration of metro project. Therefore, infrastructure cost and project duration are two important items for railway projects. There are advantages of tramway projects compared to metro projects. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze Eminönü – Alibeyköy tram line with determined factors. Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line which is in construction phase is called T5 line in Istanbul railway network. Factors are determined with one of the multi-criteria decision making method. This method is Analytical Hierarchy Process. Analytical Hierarchy Process has critical role for decision makers when they have to select the best way to solve complex problem. Especially, transportation experts generally face off with significant problem. So they prefer to use Analytical Hierarchy Process to reach solution easily. According to Analytical Hierarchy Process, experts of transportation sectors compare each determined factors with the other one by one. After comparison, each factor is listed by importance weight. Alignment selection is evaluated with spatial data. According to type of factors, importance weight of factors is matched with spatial data in attribute table. After analyze of each factor, analysis maps are created for factors. Created maps are travel demands, population density, integration to other transportation systems, proximity xxi to industry and trade areas, proximity to public and educational facilities, and slope maps. Importance weights are shown in these maps. Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line is evaluated in factor maps and analyzed according to factors importance weight. All factor importance weights are gathered in one map to create result analysis map. Result analysis map is shown significance of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line. After analysis of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line, analysis of Eyüp – Bayrampaşa which is designed as part of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tram line is completed with same method. Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line which is planned as extension of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line starts from Feshane station which is middle station of Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line. This project is in design phase. The length of Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line is 3,1 kilometer and this line has 6 stations. Like Eminönü – Alibeyköy tramway line, this line passes through area which has high travel demand, high population density, near industry and trade areas. Slope is appropriate to construct tramway for this line. Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line will have the opportunity to transfer with two important railway lines which are M1 metro and T4 tramway lines in two different stations. According to grand railway network plan of Istanbul, two another railway lines which have chance to transfer Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line will be constructed in Istanbul. After all of railway lines have been constructed, Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line has opportunity to change public transportation vehicle in 4 stations. Although there is no significant any public or education facilities around Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line, total weight score is high. Accordingly each factors, proximately analysis for high score areas is done and analysis maps of factors are created. Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway line is evaluated on factors and result analysis maps. In conclusion, result analysis map is shown total weights of fields around determined working area for analysis of Eminönü – Alibeyköy and Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway lines. Except alignments of Eminönü – Alibeyköy and Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway lines, some fields have high total weight score. Although these fields have high total weight score, there is no any railway systems line around these. So new railway line is suggested with this thesis to increase number of railway system lines and total length of railway systems in Istanbul. The other main reason is to solve transportation problem with increased number of railway systems. If new railway systems construct rapidly, they will be more efficient for city. Because of the needs of Istanbul, instead of new metro line, new tramway line is suggested. Infrastructure cost of tram project is less than metro projects and construction duration of tram projects is faster than metro projects. For these reasons, new tram line can be started to work fast. According to designed alignment for suggested tramway line, route of tramway line passes from areas which have high total weight score. Route of suggested tramway is designed along Kağıthane creek. Same analysis with Eminönü – Alibeyköy and Eyüp – Bayrampaşa tramway lines are done for suggested tramway line. There are a lot of industry and trade areas, high population density and travel demand around suggested new tram line.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2020
Anahtar kelimeler
ulaşım, transportation
Alıntı