Perakendecilik sisteminde müşteri tatmin simulasyonu

Fadıloğlu, Burak
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Perakendeciler mal ve hizmetleri son tüketicilere satan kurumlardır. Son tüketiciler ise satın aldıkları malları ve hizmetleri bizzat kendi ihtiyaçları için kullanan kimselerdir. Perakendeciliğin Pazarlama -sistemi içerisinde rolü ise bir düşüncenin son tüketiciye ulaştırılmasında son adımı oluşturması ve bu nedenle çok büyük önem taşımasıdır. Bir firmanın uzun dönemdeki amacı yaşamak olmalıdır. Bunun sağlamak için firmalar piyasada rekabet üstünlüğü kurmalıdırlar. Günümüzdeki rekabet şartlarında ise bunu sağlamanın tek bir yolu bulunmaktadır bu da müşteriyi tatmin etmekten geçmektedir. Perakendecilik sisteminde müşteri tatmini ise gerçekten çok sayıda değişken içeren, yeterince kompleks ve kavramsal olarak bilinen bir konudur. Bu konuda yapılan çalışmalar genelde müşteriyi tatmin eden adımlara inilmeden sadece müşteri tatminini ölçmeye yönelik yapılan çalışmalardır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle müşterilerin maQaza içerisinde gösterdikleri davranışlar incelenerek, müşterilerin maQaza alışveriş akışları belirlenmiştir. Bunu takiben bu adımlar üzerinde müşteriyi tatmin eden kriterler ve bu esnada rol oynayan önemli özellikler belirlenmiştir. Olayların akışı esnasında rassal sayılar üretilerek probabi 1 isti k bir model Kurulmuştur. Rassal sayıların üretilmesinde parametrelerden ve katsayılardan yararlanılarak elde edilen ortalamalara sahip dağılımlar kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen modelin simulasyonu için bilgisayar programı hazırlanmıştır. Hazırlanan program ile model tamamıyla hayal ürünü bir problem üzerinde denenmiştir. Sonuçlar müşteri tatmin kumu latif dağılımları olan histogram lar olarak sunu 1 muş tur. Bu siınulasyon modeli ile üzerinde gerçek deneyler yapmanın çok riskli olduQu bir konu olan müşteri tatmini konusunda, değişim etkileri konusunda yön verebilecek yeni bir yönetim aracı oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır.
Retailing is summation of all activities that result in the offering for sale of goods and/or services to individuals and/or organizations for purposes of ultimate consumption. A Retailer is a business firm whose predominant function is reta i 1 ing. To realize the role of retailing in the marketing system, it is necessary fist to understand what is meant by the term "marketing system". A marketing system is the process of moving an idea from conception to ultimate consumption. The Marketing system can take many forms from simple to complex depending upon the number of activities involved. The retailer can influence the marketing system by successfully devo loping an idea. Retailing is a part of marketing system, but marketing is more simply retailing. Although diffucuit to define, marketing can be said to be the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distrubution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy the customer and organizational objectives. From a retailing perspective, marketing is a very broad area. To be successful in the long run, a firm can not ignore the customer. Customer satisfaction is a requirement for success. With this idea in mind, it is believed that every retail operation should adhere to the marketing concept, which is defined as a state of mind in a company that results in all planning, policies,procedures,and actions of the company being customer oriented. The marketing concept is obviously not a tangible thing that can be studied, but it should become tangible as reflected in the various actions of the company that taken to implement the concept. In other words, the retailer will make decisions based on the wants, needs, and desires of the customers, which are not necessarily the wishes of the retailer. For example, a retailer might open for business on sunday even the owner does not wish to do so VI because the market wants to shop on sunday. Another retailer might add a line of clothes that are desired by the market even though the retailer has a personal dislike for the items. To aid the retailer in understanding the marketing concept, evry effort should be made to undestand what customers are buying and market accordingly. By thinking in terms of customer benefits, the retailer will make marketing decisions based upon the stores customer group. This process thought process constitutes smart retailing. Customer satisfaction is essential for retail business. The lack of this means trouble for the retail organization. An objective is an aim or a goal, whereas a strategy is a method or a plan to achieve a goal. Every retail organization should have customer satisfaction as a goal. This will provide the contiunity of the firm in the market. As a Retail organization examines its potential target market and those of its competitors, an analysis also should be made of various retailing mixes that may be used and are presently being used by stores in the area. The retailing mix of a store consist of all those elements that make the store entity it is in the market place. It is important to note that a retail store will have a retailing mix. The question is whether it is the best possible mix for the appropriate target market. 3LU The five parts of "P" 's of the retailing mix are ProdLuM Place, Promotion, Price and Personality. By developing the correct mix of these five elements, the r tail organization will generally be successful given basic management know-how. Product; what items are carried by the store -what brands, sizes, colors, how many and many other considerations. What services will be offered. Product consists of physical product, if any, plus the various other considerations that are wanted by the target market. Place; Where is the store or where will it be ? In what region of the country should it be located ? Should it stand alone or be in a shopping area ? Should it be in a conventional shopping center or in a mall? Promotion consists of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and publicity. Promotional needs vary with the type of store and the target market it is attempting to reach. vu Price influence the target market in many vays. For Due, customers tend to equate quality with price. The retailer should, therefore, guard against pricing too far below competition. Such efforts may result in scaring away customers rather than attracting more prospective buyers. The personality or image of a retail store is an integral part of the retailing mix. It diffres from the other "P" 's however, in that the other parts of the mix can be changed quite rapidly, but he personality of a store is a long run concept that is learned by the customer over time. For purposes of definition the personality of a store is the way in which the store is perceived by the customer. When the customer is away fro the store, he or she recalls the store as a total unit and reacts in a positive or negative way to this memory. Personality is therefore, the result of the total store and all its parts. What makes or creates the image or the personality of a store ? Simply -everything. Product, Place, Price, Promotion ar<= naturally integral parts of a store's Personality. The target market of the store itself helps to cretae the image. The attitude of store personnel can do much to generate a feeling of prestige or bargain basement, ît is essential for the store to project an appropriate personality. A confused store image will result in confused customers, a most undesirable situation. The basic steps in the retailing selling process are : <1) Approaching the customer, (E) Determining his needs and wants, (3) presenting the merchandise i<+) meeting objections, (5) closing the sale, and <6) selling by suggestion. Similar to other forms of selling, the reatil selling process involves a series of steps. Although such a structure is helpful in describing the process, in practice the selling process is a smooth flow and some steps are not always required. Reatil buying decisions can be classified by where they are made outside the store or inside the store. Out of store decisions can be sub classified into general decisions and specific decisions. In store decisions consists of substitue decisions and unplanned decisions. How a particular customer goes about making a purchase decision depends upon to a great extent on his or her involvement. Purchase involvement is the amount of effort or interest that a customer puts into the decision making process. Vlll There are three types of decision making ; extensive decision making which entails substantial purchasing effort o-ver an extended period Df time to make a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives, Limited decision making which involves fewer alternatives and less pruchasing effort, Routine decision making which occurs almost automatically with little or no purchasing effort. In this study, fist of all, a customer purchasing flow integrated with the retailing selling process has been clearly defined. Under the assumption that this is the retail purchasing flow Df a customer who will enter to any retailer, the model has been determined. Twenty factors that are affecting the personality of the retailer including the price, promotion, place, produc t and personality that is the summation of retailer people's selling process success and the image of the shop, has been accepted as the critical factors determining the satisfaction level of the customer. Through the customer pruchasing flow, in the decision steps, random numbers that are generated from the normal and uniform d istrubu tions with the mean of the combination of these twenty factors with the assumed different cofactors, are used. By this way, a probabilistic model of customer purchasing flow has been offered. Besides this, through the purchasing flow the steps that are affecting the level of customer satisfaction has been identified and given cofactors for each. As a result the model has been offered as a customer satisfaction model for retailers that has extensive decision making steps. The computer program for this model has been coded in the Pascal Software Language. So that this model could be realized in the computer. Following the success in the computerization of this model, the model has been applied to any given imaginary problem. The results has been offered as the cumulative distrubution of customer satisfaction levels as graphical charts. As a result, a customer satisfaction simulation has been created for retailing system which can be offered for retail management as a management tool, for giving important decisions that can not be determined by experiences because of the costs. On the other hand it is also a new approach to customer satisfaction concept, in the way of accepting customer satisfaction as a total score of all the detailed events that the customer had in the shop. In this perspective it can be used to find out the critical factors that are affecting your customer satisfaction distrubution much more than the others. And more emphasis could be given on them than the others. IX Further research can easily be produced from this model. The cof actors and the factos that ar& assumed to be critical importance creates also new study fields for other sciences like Sociology, Psychology and Marketing. This model can be furtherly analyzed through the study of a group that is combined from the experts of these sciences.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Endüstri ve Endüstri Mühendisliği, Müşteri tatmini, Perakendecilik, Industrial and Industrial Engineering, Customer satisfaction, Retailing