Peyzaj Aydınlatması: Antalya Mardan Palace Örneği

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Tarih
2014-02-20
Yazarlar
Demir, Nazar
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
İnsanların günlük yaşamlarında gerçekleştirdikleri aktiviteler bir araya geldiklerinde kentsel yaşamı oluştururlar. Kentler için önemli olan ise, dış mekanların kullanılabilir hale getirilerek yaşam kalitesinin artırılabilmesidir. Kentliler için nefes alabildikleri, yapılar dışında kalan, yaşamlarını sürdürmekten zevk aldıkları alanlar da açık alanlardır. Açık alanlar insanların her türlü sosyal, fiziksel ve rekreatif gereksinimlerini kapsar. Bu alanlarda bulunan peyzaj öğelerinin insanlar tarafından gündüz olduğu gibi gecede kullanılabilmesi ve algılanabilmesi açısından aydınlatmanın önemi büyüktür. Uygulanmış planlı ve dengeli bir aydınlatma projesi, gündüz saatlerinde yoğun olarak kullanılan bu alanların yine günün ilerleyen saatlerinde de etkin bir biçimde kullanılabilmesini sağlar. Aydınlatma sistemleri oluşturulurken modern aydınlatma tekniğinin getirdiği bütün imkanlardan yararlanılmalıdır. Aydınlatma elemanlarının konumu, ışık kaynağının seçimi, projenin oluşturulurken kimlerle çalışıldığı, sistemlerin özellikleri ve kullanım süreleri gibi konulara aydınlatma tasarımı süreci ve bütünü içinde yer verilmelidir. Bu çalışmada öncelikle, çalışmanın amacı, kapsamı ve yöntemi ile ilgili genel bilgiler verilerek açık alanların gece de kullanılabilmesine yönelik gerekli olan aydınlatma kavramından kısaca bahsedilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, aydınlatma kavramı ve aydınlatma tekniklerini genel itibariyle inceledikten sonra, genel aydınlatma ilkelerine yer vererek, Antalya’da uygulanmış olan Mardan Palace Otelinin peyzaj aydınlatmasını gözden geçirip, aydınlatmanın peyzajdaki önemini ortaya koymaktır. Peyzaj aydınlatmasını anlayabilmek için öncelikle aydınlatmayı daha net anlatabilmek, bunun için de aydınlatma konusu ile ilgili kavramlara değinmek oldukça önemlidir. Bu kapsamda ışık, ışıma, ışık kirliliği, renk, görme fizyolojisi ve ışık algısı ile ışık kaynaklarının türlerine değinilmiştir. Peyzaj aydınlatmasının amacı yaşamımızda önemli yer kaplamaktadır. Bu amaçların başlıcaları, kentlerin güvenlik ihtiyacı için yapılan aydınlatma, rahat ulaşım için yapılan aydınlatmalar, kentlilerin yol-yön-yer bulma ihtiyacı için yapılan aydınlatma, kentlilerin sosyal aktivite ihtiyacı için yapılan aydınlatma ve kentin özellikli bölgelerinin vurgulanması amacıyla yapılan aydınlatmalardır. Bu çalışmada yaşadığımız ve çeşitli aktivitelerimizi gerçekleştirdiğimiz açık alanlarda, peyzaja gün ışığından farklı bir yorum getirilmesini sağlayacak, görünümü anlamlı kılacak aydınlatmada tasarım ilkeleri geniş bir şekilde açıklanmıştır. Beraberinde aydınlatma aygıtlarının bakım ve maliyetinin öneminden söz edilerek verimlilik konusuna kısaca değinilmiştir. xvi Bütün bu bahsedilen konular çerçevesinde Antalya’daki Mardan Palace örneği ele alınıp, proje aydınlatma kriterleri açısından incelenmiştir. İlk olarak, otel hakkında kısaca bilgi verilerek ikinci aşamada aydınlatma projesinde kullanılan aydınlatma armatürlerine genişçe yer verilmiştir. Bu bölümde asıl olarak ele alınan konu, çalışmanında amacı doğrultusunda belirlenen projenin tasarım yaklaşımıdır. İyi planlanmış bir aydınlatma tasarımının görsel konforu sağlamasının yanı sıra, peyzaj alanlarının bu şekilde nasıl daha cazip ve dikkat çekici hale getirilebileceğine dair önemi bu tez çalışmasında vurgulanmıştır. Bununla beraber, açık alanların aydınlatma projesi uygulamaları öncesi ve sonrasında karşılaşılan sorunların çözümüne yardımcı olacak önerilere de yer verilmiştir.
Urban life is a summary of everyday activities of each indiviual. From a cities’ point of view, increasing the life quality by composing utilizable outdoors is what does matter. Any place out of any building where urbanites can breathe and enjoy maintaining their lives are “outdoors”. Outdoors include people’s every kind of social, physical and recreative necessities. Lighting has a great importance in terms of people’s usability and perceptibility of outdoor landscape items at night, just like at daylight. We can briefly describe the “lighting” as the implementation of the light so as to see the objects and environments. The main aim of the lighting is not to get a certain lighting level but to provide a visual comfort. Landscape lighting allows the users to use the applied landscape project at nights as well as daylight. Lighting has been an indispensable part of landscape design. Thus, the visual quality of the landscape can be made attractive at nights, as well. A well-planned and a stable lighting project enables the use of these places effectively in the late hours of the day which are intensively used in the daylight. All facilities that modern lighting techniques brought should be utilized when cerating a lighting system. Issues like the locations of lighting items, the selection of light source, people worked with while creating the project, the properties and the duration of the system should be included in the process and integrity of lighting design. In this study, general information such as the aim, scope and method of the study has been given initially to mention briefly about the concept of lighting which is essential for open areas planned to be used at nights as well. The main aim of the study is to determine the significance of the landscape lighting by stating the general landscape principles and reviewing the applied landscape lightning in Mardan Palace Hotel in Antalya after looking into the concept of lighting and lighting techniques in general. In order to understand landscape lighting, it is important to explain the term of lighting more clearly and to mention about the concepts related to the term of lighting. Within this concept; light, light pollution, colour, physiology of vision, the perception and the source of light have been mentioned. The aim of landscape lighting occupies an important place in our lives. These objectives are primarily the lighting for the need of security in urban areas, lighting for the easy transportation, the lighting for the need of the citizens to find the way-direction-location, lighting for the citizens in need of social activity and lighting for pointing to the favored parts of the city. xviii Principles of lighting designs which help to bring a different interpretation to the landscape from daylight and to cause a significant appearance in the opean areas where we live and execute various activities have been widely described in the study. Plant lighting, swimming pool, pond and the water lighting, lighting for children’s playground, the lighting of the pedestrian pathways, square lighting, bridge lighting, facade lighting, two-and three-dimensional plastic items lighting, stair lighting are the design principles which can not be ignored for the outdoor lighting. Although whole design principles add value to the landscape lightning, in this study the most common design principles and the ones being evaluated most are the pedestrian path lighting, plant lighting and pool lighting. The pedestrians on the busy road where transport circulation occurs, desire that road is to be lightened in order to protect themselves in case a probable danger may occur on that road. In addition, balanced-lightened ways provide the users both a convenience of walking and an easy comprehension of the surrounding landscape items. The necessary criteria which should be taken into consideration are the level of pedestrian path lighting, safe movement, the coating material or road lighting, lightning model and armature selection. A convenience lighting technique used in lightning of a special plant is determined according to the plant s role in the composition of the landscape and expected visual impact of the plant. At this point, among the variables to be considered, the position or the location of the armature means a big importance as this position (front, side, back, bottom, top, or a combination of these) affects the quality of the plant enlightenment. Water gives an impressive feeling to the people with the sense of continuity or as a focal point in a place. Dynamic water elements gives the feeling of the excitement and movement to the atmosphere. The pools should be lightened through the light sources placed at the bottom of water levels in the pools. The light sources enlightening pools should be selected in such a way that it could highlight the blue color of the pool. In the absence of water in the pool, lighting devices should be hidden as far as possible. In the landscape lighting, after the design principles are discussed, the importance of the cost of care and efficiency of lighting devices are briefly described. Within the framework of the issues mentioned, Mardan Palace in Antalya has been taken as an example and has been examined in terms of project lighting criteria. In the area of Kundu hotels, Antalya, Mardan Palace was established in an area of approximately 180 thousand m², inspired by Istanbul s historic buildings, built consists of three structures. The European side, the Anatolian side and Dolmabahçe in the middle. Because of the land shape, an U -shaped form has emerged. At the hotel entrance, a reception and lobby seats meet customers under an impressive vault. Downstairs there is a SPA Center in the concept of the rainforest located in an area of 7500 m² with the attractions such as fitness center, squash, indoor and outdoor swimming pools, Turkish bath, Finnish bath, jacuzzi, steam baths, massage rooms, relaxation areas, body care rooms. The hotel also includes basketball courts, tennis courts, discos, amphitheater, bars and a children s club. The hotel reminiscent of Dolmabahçe Place consists of 16 restaurants, 32 bars and 16 thousand square meters pool. The pool built in the shape of Bosphorus is among the biggest pools around the world. In the middle of this big xix pool, a fish restaurant designed like Maiden s Tower takes place. The costumers eating at the restaurant in Maiden s Tower can see the fish and the ones swimming along the fish in the aquarium. The fish restaurant exactly resembling Maiden’s Tower, which covered with a 80 meter length huge aquarium is one of the most attractive places. All the outdoor lighting design and product selection of Mardan Palace , the most luxurious hotel in Antalya, were fulfilled by Tepta lighting iGuzzini and Antrox. The work of the lighting project started in 2006 and took more than two years. All linear enlightening of outside front of the hotel was produced with the Antrox cold cathode lamps designed uniquely for the place. Owing to cold cathode applications with heat and humidity resistant and lasting minimum of fifty thousand hours, maintenance costs have been minimized. The walking path of the bridge over the pool was lightened with iGuzzini LED luminaires. Radius and Platea projectors were used for the Gate of Dolmabahçe Palace and for the wharf premises at the pool sides. An atmosphere consistent with the view of the pool was created by installing 64 Euclide short pillars, all of which were shock and moisture-resistant glass products of IGuzzini. They were used for general lighting around the pool. While the surrounding of the ornamental pool at the entrance of the hotel were taken attention through GlimCube short pillars; and the the external stairs to the building were lightened by means of recessed LED fixtures, the pool-side illuminated sculptures were highlighted through Woody projectors. At the outdoor parking area, Delphi pillars were utilized. At VIP villas area, a different ambiance was created utilizing classical Place des Vosges armature produced by Roger Pradier firm and New Park bollards. As a result, besides the fact that a lighting design does provide a visual comfort which has been well planned according to the studies and their conclusions, the importance of converting landscape areas to a more attractive and eye-catching areas has been emphasized in this thesis. Advices have been offered also to help to solve the problems faced before and after the applications of lighting project for open areas:  The light source to light certain objects should be directed towards these parts, and certainly should not be appeared. Even though seeing the light source is uncomfortable and tiring, it reduces the benefit from the lighting. In this way, the light towards the eye causes to make the enlightened plants or areas appear even darker than they actually are.  If you want to get cores and cavities on a surface to be detected, a surface area with a dominant direction of light should be established and the light source must be set according to the inclination indent tabs.  The success or failure of enlightening over the pale objects depend on the level of lighting created over these items. In the light of bright objects to be created, they can not be very effective in their own visibility; lighting and reflecting surfaces must be attained the required luminance level.  The relationship between the color of the light from the enlightening armature used for lighting of objects, the color of the enlightened objects and / or surfaces is very important. Different spectrum lights may cause great changes in the color type over the colored objects. In diverse places, the light images occurred with different light colors might be distinctive and very good or very bad conditionally. xx  Regarding to the outdoor lighting, new structures or colored structures close to white color must be lighted through white light. Cool colors can be utilized so as to lighten the metal and glass –surfaced structures.  It should be attentive to use solid color as lightening front. Since the emphasis with different colors may also reveal wrong application, at the beginning very well work must be fulfilled. In this case, the number of light color should not exceed two.  Plant and water lighting must be certainly carried out with cool colors. The water must be lightened below the water. Another method of lightning is to lighten the trees surrounding the dark water and to obtain the images of the water element on the dark surface.  Lighting each tree in the process of green area enlightenment is the worst mistake. Lighting must be done for the tree groups locally and tree groups devoid of the lighting must be abandoned. It should be noted that as well as the safety and visual comfort, different effects from the daylight can be created with a planned and balanced lighting design. It should be remembered that lighting design can be formed with the concept of buildings and the landscape as a whole. It shouldn’t be an issue being considered later. For the lighting projects, in which landscape projects include it must be absolutely worked with a landscape architect collectively. Therefore, impressive, aesthetic and functional solutions in accordance with the field can be can be produced much more easily. In the next stage of the application process, the controls and maintenance of the project should not be neglected.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
Anahtar kelimeler
peyzaj, aydınlatma, landscape, lighting
Alıntı