Toplam kalite yönetimi ISO 9000 standartları ve tekstil sektöründeki uygulaması

Özbek, Banu
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Teknolojinin oldukça ileri boyutlara ulaştığı çağımızda, günümüz piyasaları tek bir bütün olma yolunda ilerlemektedir. Küreselleşme, ezici rekabeti beraberinde getirerek, firmaların birbirlerini geçebilmek için savaşmaya başlamasına neden olmuştur. Artık müşteri ihtiyaçlarını ön planda tutan, kendisini sürekli yenileyen verimli ve ekonomik üretim yapan kuruluşlar hayatta kalabileceklerdir. Toplam Kalite Yönetimi, müşteri tarafından tanımlanan kaliteye öncelik verilerek kuruluşunu ürün ve hizmetler yanında yönetiminin de kalitesini ve verimliliğini artırmayı hedefleyen bir çalışma ya da yönetim uygulamasıdır. Toplam kalitenin gereklerinden biri ve en önemlisi ISO 9000 kalite sistemleridir. ISO 9000 Kalite Güvencesi, kalite ve verimliliği en üst seviyeye ulaştırabilmek için kullanılan araçlardan birisidir. Amacı ise, kuruluşların daha sistemli, daha kalıcı, daha verimli çalışmasını ve bunun sürekliliğini sağlamaktır. ISO 9000 ve Toplam Kalite Yönetimi hakkında bilgi verilmeye yönelik bu çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde; kalite, Toplam Kalite Yönetimi ve temel öğelerinden bahsedilmektedir. Üçüncü bölümde ise, Kalite Güvencesi Tanımı yapılmakta ve ISO 9000 Kalite Güvencesi Sistemi hakkında bilgi verilerek, Toplam Kalite Yönetimi ile ilişkilerine değinilmekte ve günümüzde ISO 9000'den ileri kademeleri teşkil eden Deming Kalite ödülü ve Malcolm Baldrige Kalite ödülü ve Avrupa Kalite ödülünden bahsedilerek bunların birbirleriyle karşılaştırması yapılmaktadır. Dördüncü bölüm, teorik olarak incelenen ISO 9000 ile ilgili uygulamaları içermektedir. Bu bölümde; ISO 9000 Kalite Güvencesi Sistemine paralel olarak dökümante edilen kalite politikası, prosedür, talimat, kalite planları, iş akış diyagramları, görev tanımları ve kalite hedefleri örnekleri sunulmaktadır.
The time to respond to problems, needs, and opportunities is minimized. Costs are also minimized by eliminating or minimizing tasks that do not add value. Moreover, they are minimized in such a way that the quality of the goods and services given to the customer and the way the customer is treated is enhanced.. A climate is put in place that supports and encourages teamwork and leads to more satisfying, motivating, and meaningful work for employees.. There is a general ethic of continuous improvement. In addition, there is a methodology that employees understand for attaining a state of continuos improvement. A third way to define Total Quality is to discuss the various tools, techniques, and other elements that lead to the outcomes; in other words, to describe components of a TQ effort. Traditional tools drawn from Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Reliability Engineering point to root causes of problems, and can be useful in making predictable the process for offering goods and services.. The tools and techniques of Just-In-Time can dramatically reduce cost and time. These include ways to speed product flow, to pinpoint and eliminate activities that do not add value for the customer, to group tasks into work cells or products centers, and to alter the method of planning and scheduling.. A number of elements from Organization Development are useful for TQ, including measuring the work climate, minimizing political and communication barriers to teamwork, developing management skills, innovating in design of the organization structure (formal and ad hoc), and increasing employee involvement in decision making.. Finally, modem concepts of leadership are needed. The modern leader guides by creating a vision of what the organization can be and directing the establishment of a climate that encourages each employee to embrace it so that vision and make it his or her own, to personalize it so that it has meaning. Also, where the leader encourages teamwork and participation, and balances the use of one-alone decisions with those where participation is appropriate. Total Quality can be defined as an effective system for integrating the quality development, quality- maintenance, and quality-improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction. xi In the third chapter detailed knowledge about quality assurance and ISO 9000 standards is given. The Deming Prize, Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award and European Quality Award are compared with each other in terms of their application categories and criteria. As Europe moves closer to more interdependence and cooperation among countries, common product standards are being established. Perhaps the most comprehensive is the set of quality standards offered by the International Standards Organization known as the ISO 9000 series (it was also adopted by the European Committee for Standardization and is also known as Euro Norm 29000). The International Organization for Standards is actually an agency made up the standards groups of 91 countries, and is comprised of about 180 standing technical committees. ISO Technical Committee 176 was formed in 1979 to harmonize increasing international activity and the need for producing products and services of high quality. Two subcommittees were formed, one to agree on common terminology and the second to establish international standards. The standards come under ISO 9000 and were finalized and published in1987. The set of standards is divided into five subsets. ISO 9000 The general guidelines for use of the set of standards. ISO 9001 A model for assuring quality in design, development production, installation, and service of the product ISO 9002 A complementary model for production and installation ISO 9003 Specifications for final inspection and testing ISO 9004 Principal concepts and a guide for overall quality management The standards also cover how to establish a Total Quality environment by suggesting standards for quality management, for establishing quality polices, and for setting up a quality system. ISO 9000 offers 1 0-step process for accreditation. 1. Management education 2. Writing a quality policy 3. Nominating a quality representative 4. Identifying responsibilities 5. Identifying business processes 6. Writing a quality manual 7. Writing procedures 8. Writing work instructions 9. Training in how to use the system 10. Implementation XII Baldrige National Quality Award The Malcolm C. Baldrige National Quality Award was established in 1987 in honour of Malcolm Baldrige, who was the Secretary of Commerce under President Ronald Reagan and died after falling from a horse. The award was generally well thought through and, in particular, well marketed. Large, well known, well-managed companies were challenged to apply for it and gain from the publicity that would result. It also met the need for simple, easily understandable criteria that helped to take quality out of its statistical, arcane corner. Last, it was geared to top managers; the presidents of the companies that have won the award such as Motorola, Xerox, and Milliken have used the opportunity to establish a visionary platform from which to communicate to both employees and to customers. There are seven categories by which applicants are judged. Below is a summary of each and the weight it has for the total award. Leadership (100 points) : Examines the senior executives' leadership in creating values and incorporating those values into the way their company conducts business. It also examines how the company projects the quality values to the marketplace. Whether or not the company has a quality department or regulatory affairs office is not considered as part of the evaluation. This category is divided into four sections : 1. Senior Executive Leadership : Describes leadership style, personal involvement, and visibility in maintaining an environment for quality excellence. 2. Quality Values : Summarizes the company's quality values, how they are communicated throughout the company, and how well those values have been adopted and reinforced in the way the company operates. 3. Management for Quality : Describes how quality values are integrated into day-to-day leadership, management, and supervision of all company units. 4. Public Responsibility.Describes how the company extends itself to the external community, and includes responsibility for public health, safety, and environmental protection, and also ethical business practices. Information and Analysis (70 points).-Examines the scope, validity, use, and management of data and information that underlie the company's overall quality improvement program. Data, information, and analysis are xiii examined for their adequacy to support a prevention-based approach to quality and customer satisfaction built upon "management by fact" Strategic Quality Planning (60 points) : Examines the company's planning process in achieving or retaining quality leadership and how quality improvement planning is integrated into overall business planning. Short- term or longer-term plans to achieve a quality leadership positions are also looked at. Human Resource Utilization (150 points) : Examines the company's effectiveness at developing and utilizing the full potential of its work force, including management, and to maintain an environment that is conducive to full participation, continuous improvement, and personal and organizational growth. Quality Assurance of Products and Services (140 points) : Examines the statistical and procedural approaches used for designing and producing goods and services based, primarily, upon process design and control. Included here are materials and services purchased from suppliers. Quality Results (180 points) ; Examines the levels of quality improvement based upon objective measures derived from analysis of customers' requirements and expectations and from analysis of business operation. Customer Satisfaction (300 points) : Examines the company's knowledge of its customers, overall customer service systems, responsiveness, and ability to meet customers' requirements and expectations. Deming Award Edwards Deming, along with Joseph Juran, was instrumental in teaching the Japanese how to manufacture high-quality products. They both began teaching statistical techniques in Japan in the years immediately following Second World War. The Deming Award was established in 1951 by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers. 1986 was the first year it allowed companies from the other countries to apply. In 1989, Florida Power & Light became the first non-Japanese company to win the prize. The award places particular emphasis on how the management and control processes support the manufacture of quality products or delivery of services. The questions examiners ask in making the award are listed below. XIV . Are all parts of the management system working together to satisfy customer needs?. Do employees understand how and why the quality-improvement program works?. Are managers enthusiastic about the quality improvement program?. Is the company constantly growing?. Are employees learning to use Quality Control techniques and participating in the Quality Control teams?. Do employees support management through the use of quality in daily work?. Are the results achieved because of planning- or luck? Companies that complete for the Deming Prize are asked to prove that they have found a way to institutionalize improvement efforts on a companywide basis. Many Deming Prize winners have permanently adopted rigorous management reviews that are part of the contest- evaluation process. In the last chapter application of ISO 9002 in a textile factory is explained giving examples from documentation and usage including procedures, work flow charts, work instructions, quality handbook, quality plan and targets.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
ISO 9000, Tekstil sektörü, Toplam kalite yönetimi, ISO 9000, Textile sector, Total quality management