Dini Musikide Değişik Bestekarlara Ait 8 Ayin-i Şerif'in İncelenmesi

Yağız, Nazire
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Mûsikîmizde ve özellikle dînî mûsikîmizde Kutbinniyi Osman Dede'nin miraciyesinden sonra en geniş hacimli bir formdur. Beste-i Kadim, Derviş Köçek Mustafa Dede, Buhûrizâde Mustafa Itrî Efendi, Üçüncü Selim, Osman Dede, Dede Efendi, Rif'at Bey tarafından bestelenen âyin-i şerifler dört bölümden ibarettir. Her bölüme "selim" adı verilir. Her âyin-ı-i şeriften önce büyük bestekâr Itrî'nin Rast makamındaki Nİt-ı Şerifi çalınır. Küçük bir ney taksiminden sonra icra edilen iyin makamında peşreve girilir. Peşrevden sonra gelen bölümler için ayrı ayrı usuller kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmada şu noktalar üzerinde durulmuştur : Mevlinâ hayatı ve eserleri, Mevlevî mûsikisi, JMevlevî âyini, güfte, usul, şekil ve müzikal olarak incelenmesi ve îtyin-i şeriflerin bestekârlarının özet olarak hayatları ele alınmıştır.
It as,the> 'biggest and the-most voluminous form in our music and especially in our religious music. "Ayini Şerifler" (Mevlevi order a composition in four sections played during the "Sema") composed by Beste-i Hadim, Derviş Köçek, Buhurizade Mustafa Itri Efendi, Üçüncü Selim, Na'yi Dsman Dede, Dede Efendi, Rıfat Bey consist of four sections. Each section is called the "Selam". "I\lat-ı Şerif" of Rast mode composed by the great composer Itri is played before every composition played during the "Sema" namely "Ayin-i Şerif". Following a small instrumental improvisation played with a reed flute "Peşrev" of "Ayin" form is played. For sections following the "Peşrev" seperate and different rhythmic patterns are used. The following paints are amphasised in this study. A short summary of the subjects : THE LIFE DF MEVLANA CElSlEDDÎ|\I-İ. RUMİ (12D7-1273) The birth date and place of Mevlana is mentioned as 6 Rebi-ül evvel £>k (September 3D, 12D7) and the "Belh" city of Horasan in the work "Merakıb-ül-Arifin" of Ahmet Dede from Eflak who is a Mevlevi scholar and who has collected the legends of Mevlana in the 14 th Century. The very common title of Celaleddin is "Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi" whose real name is "Muhammed". Mevlânâ Celaleddin first Df all learned the greatness of Islam, the Islam sciences and the other scientific branches from his father. A very important change has happened in the of Celaleddin that directed him to be the Mevlana in the year of 1232. He has been interested in canonical law and religion till he is 24, the time his father has deceased, and he has learned all of the phenomenal sciences related to wisdom and world such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, history and geography. He has been raised to high degrees of such sciences to be able to sermonize and tecah in them. Dne year after his father's death Seyyid Burhaneddin Tirmizi who is one of the novices and assistants of him has arrived to Konya, and he has had the duty of completing the lacking sides of Mevlana on the way to especially Sufism. Mevlana has worked with Seyyid Burhaneddin for a long period. Seyyid Burhaneddin had also wished him to learn the "phenomenal" sciences. The most famous theological schools of their era were in Halep and Şam. Mevlanâ could stay in Halep for only one or two years. His aim was to go to Şam. In fact Muhyiddin-i Arabi who was a very famous scholar of that era was living there. He arrived to Şam and attended the "Mukaddemiye" Theological School. vi He was studying day and night and gradually was filling his pouch Df science every day. He was visiting the scholars and Sufis of that era, discussing many subjects with them and receiving answers to his many questions. He has stayed in Şam for more than four years and came back to Anatolia later. First, he called to Kayseri and picked his Şheikh Seyyid Burhaneddin, and arrived to Konya together with him. Now, Mevlâna has set himself upon Seyyid. He passes his "SDluk" (entering) period with patience and reaches to "Kemal" (maturity) by one ordeal fallowing the other. When Seyyid Burhaneddin is convinced that his duty is over, he informed that he wants to move away from Konya. Fallowing the relevant discussions in this respect Mevlana kissed the holy hands of his Sheikh in 1239 and sent him back ta Kayseri. The most important event in the life af Mevlânâ has happened in the year of ÎZkk, and his regular life which has continued normally up to that year has been completely upset. That year, an itinerant mystic dervish called Şems-i Tebrizi who is fond of influencing the others and who has a certain attraction arrived at Konya. Şems-i Tebrizi had great influence on Mevlana. He lit with a flame the candle of mysticism and science which has accumulated in his soul and mind. By that time, Mevlana was 37 and Şems was 60 years old. Şems took his soul away from science and outer workship world surrounded by phenomenal sciences, and showed the power of exuberanting his soul to the utmost to the wide and mysterious horizons of the atmosphere of sense and thought. They have worked together for a long period. In the beginning of March 1246, Şems unexpectedly got disappeared from Konya. The disappearance of Şems injured Mevlana at his heart, the most vital spot. Mevlana went to Tebriz and Şam to search for Şems. He searched for him a lot but could not find him. However, he had seen his existence in his heart and he had found him spiritually and morally. Çelebi Muhammed who was adhered to his chief, founder life and soul had wished to widen his perfection, to open the curtains of this sun of love and wisdom, to light up the whole world with his errays. He had considered him to be authorised so. By that time, the "Divan" (the collection of poems) in which the lyric poems of Mevlana have been collected has enlarged and has become a "Divan-ı Kebir" (the Great Divan). Çelebi Muhammed has wished and asked Mevlâna to prepare a master- work in which the wide wisdom, the manner and tho most glorious state of poetry and even his ability of reading the poem random and easy like the flow of free water without being flurried a lot of meter and rhyme, and his considerations about Sufism to be reelected, all such matters to be addressed to people and large groups, and thus "Metfnevi" which has been most read and heard has been prepared. Vll The whole of Mesnevi expect the firs 18 divisions have been narrated by Mevlana, and Çelebi Hüsameddin has recorded and written it. Finally, in 1273, Mevlana reached to his great and eternal love, passing away from this transitory world following a short illness at the age of 6G. This event was a "Şeb-i Arus" (the nuptial night) for Mevlana who closed his eyes one evening. Mevlana does not consider humanism as an idea where human is an existance for merely being appreciated, but accepts human as the masterpiece of God and in fact as a part of God. The considerations of Mevlana related to supernatural forces, science, religion and love can be summarized as fallows : Man (in relation to God) takes the necessary steps and precautions, but can not know what his faith, predestination, the wish of God is. Man, by using his intelligence, is the creator of actions as he thinks and in the direction of his spiritual needs, in other words, by means of some principal supports such as intelligence, thought and soul, etc... However, man can not be the creator of his actions since he has not chosen upon his wish such three principal supports (intelligence, thought and soul) which have happened by itself and he is not the creator of these supports. Mevlana has considered the beauties of Human above all. Man who can find what he searches in his heart is the greatest existance. He has considered the love of Human most important of all and suggested that religions can meet here in this love. According to Mevlana, wickedness can be cured by love. Man can not be pured from mistakes, let that he realizes his mistakes and feels sorry for them and thus the fight of "I" and "You" disappears. Mevlana considers being reasonable and decent as becoming mature; overcomes egoism and advises to be tolerant. Mevlana calls everyone to the state of being right, good and friendly with humanistic thought. Mevlana validiates the real knowledge and praises the real scholar. He prefers the science which is helpful to humanism : He does not accept the science which is no good for people as a real science. The philosophy of Mevlana that appraised the thought and love was completely obedient to the faith Df Islam, its whole principles, orders the God and the Prophet of Islam with a complete "İhlas" (Sincerety). Mevlana was a commander of a fight with love to once again reach to highabove of the souls which have cote to earth from highaboves. According to his existing poems, Mevlana is a great poet, that sometimes becomes very deep in soul and sometimes levels, gets sahhow or are collected as sometimes overruns or gets calm. The works of Mevlana can be calassified into two sections : The firs section consists of the verses. Poems, Mesnevi, Divan-ı Kebir, Rübayit (Collection of quatrains). RQbaiyat (Collection of quatrains) is about two thousand poems at the end of the Divan-ı Kebir. Later, they have been arranged as a seperate collection. The proses are vm the ones knouın as "Mektubat" (Letters), "Mevaiz-i Mecalis-i Seba" (Exhortations of Seven Assemblies) and "Fihi Ma Fih" (About It and Not About It). These are also the works written by special clerks. MESNEVİ : The most respected, liked and well-known work of Mevlana which has been respected like a holy book in the Islamic world is the Mesnevi. This work which has been arranged in the meter "failatün failatün failatün" of "Aruz" (Prosody) and the form of Mesnevi has been pronounced as 25618 couplet in 6 volumes. DİUAN-I KEBİR : Although Mevlana is a Turk he has awarded his Sufism poems which are most probably the most beautiful ones of the East to the Persian literature because the language of literature at his era was Persian. As the value of pcem, his best work is the Divan. This Divan has been pronounced with the meters of 2k class of meters of Prosody and all poems in each class of meter has been collected in alphabetical order. That is why it is like 24 different Divans. This great work is called the "Divan-ı Kebir" (the Great Divan). This is the work is also Persian, but there are also some Arabic series and quartlets. Mast of the poems in this Divan which has been arranged as "Kaside" (eulogy poems), "gazel" (lyric poems), "terci", "rnüstezad" (supplements to each couplet or line) "rubai" (quatrains) and other forms bear the name of Şems-i Tebriz-i as if they are written by.him. That is why there are some people who called the "Mevlana Divan" the "Divan-ı Şems-i Tebriz". FIHL.'MAFIH..;.. This:, work in which, many explanations, interpretations and advices related to many different subjects of Mevlana in his special meetings is written in Persian and in the prose form. Mevlana walks under the light of Sufism while explaining the Godly matters in this work of him. MEKTUBAT : These are the letters of Mevlana collected later. MECALIS-I SEBA : This is the book in which seven sermons have been arranged. The main principals of being a member of Mevlevi idae are classified in three groups : First of them is to accept Mevlana as the "pir" (the founder and leader) of this religious order, not to step away from the way of Mevlana, to trust and believe in him after the God and the Prophet Mohammad, to read the "Mesnevi" and to be a Sufi. Second is to a religious one, to clarify the soul, to be clarified in soul and materialistically, to be a man of science and culture. Third is to be modest, resistant, polite and cheerful, to be a good sample for others by behaving well and kind, to reach to IX "hikmet" (wisdom) by using his intelligence and to serve far humanism. In this Graduation Thesis, the Mevlevi Ceremonies are studied from the musical point nf view : If it can be explained in short ; a. The First Section (of the vocal music) : In general it is composed with the rhythmic pattern nf "Devr-i Revan" (fast rhythmic pattern of 14 or 26 beats) and sometimes uith "Düyek" (rhythmic pattern of 8 beats). First of all the main mode of the music is presented. Later, suitable passages can be played upon request. The First Section is connected to the Second Section by an instrumental warbling and sometimes direktly. b. The Second Section : It is in the rhythmic pattern of other pattern rather than "Evfer" has been very seldom used in this section. Mostly, it starts with the last five beats of "Evfer". In the Second Sections the quatrains of Mevlânâ that is ; "Sultammsm, sultanimsm, Canımda benim imanımsın, Ben canlanırım bir nefesinle Bir can demek, yüz canımsın." is used as the text in most cases and this text together with its vocal composition has been repeated absolutely the same in the Fourth Section in most cases, too. c. The Third Section : The Third Section of the Ceremonies are also passed by an instrumental warbling and sometimes directly. This one is the longest section of the ceremony. Generally, it consists of more than one parts. Its beginning is in the rhythmic pattern of "Devr-i Kebir" (Major rhythmic pattern of 28 beats) in most cases. It can also be in the rhythmic patterns of "Frenkçin" (rhythmic pattern of 12 beats), "Düyek" (rhythmic pattern of 8 beats), "Evsat" (rhythmic pattern of 26 beats). This section which is rather played slowly continues with an instrumental warbling in the rhythmic pattern of "Aksak semai" (rhythmic pattern of 10 beats) or with an instrumental "semai" (rhythmic pattern of 3 beats), and it is connected to the section in which the text consist of the following couplets of Eflaki ; "Ey ki hezar aferin, bu nice sultan olur, Kulu olan kişiler hüsrev ü hakan olur, Her ki bugün Ueled'e inanuben yüz süre, Yoksul ise bay olur, bay ise sultan olur." This section has always been composed in the rhythmic pattern of "Yürük Semai" (rhythmic pattern of 6 beats). There can also be a passage of mode. This section is also divided into more than one parts with instrumental warbling. Following the Turkish poem of Eflaki, there comes some other strophes in Persion or Turkish. Tempo gradually gets faster. Later suddenly the rhythmic pattern charges and there comes the Fourth Section. d. The Fourth Section : This section is also in the rhythmic pattern of "Evfer" (rhythmic pattern of 9 beats), the same as the second one and played slouily. During this last whirling, the chief whirler lets nobody in the middle. Everybody passes to the outer circle. The chief whirler also salutes the Sheikh and gets bact to his previous place, stands straight up. Following that, the Sheikh tilts his head, takes the right side of his cloak on to the left had somewhere near to shoulder and by holding the collar with the right hand the thumb being on the collar but the other fingers being under and opening the chest a little. He walks exatly to the middle. That point is the center of the Equator and the center of the Ceremony Hall. This point is called the "Kutb noktası" (the pole). The Sheikh whirls there slowly without opening his arms. This dance of the Sheikh is called the "Post Sema" (the Post Dance). e. The last "Peşrev" (form with long rhythmic patterns) and the last "Yürük Semai" (rhythmic pattern of 6 beats) : When the oral part of the Ceremony is over, the last "peşrev" starts to play with the accompany of the clamorous beats of the small double drums. In fact this last "peşrev" is played in the rhythmic pattern of claromous "düyek" (rhythmic pattern of 8 beats) even if it has been composed in another pattern. Fallowing the last "peşrev", there comes the instrumental workpiece called the last "Yürük Semai". After the last "Yürük Semai" either the Chief Player personally or another player upon the Chief's order plays the last "taksim" (the instrumental improvisation). During this last "taksim" everybody who is whirling whirls exatly where they are. However, the Sheikh walks towards the post while dancing slowly. The time the Sheikh reaches the post the last "taksim" finishes. The Sheikh stops dancing, kisses the ground and sits down. One of the musicians starts with the name of God and reads a "Asr-ı Şerif". The whirlers who hear that stop and tilt their heads, sits where they are while discussing. When the "Asr-i Şerif" is over, the Chief Whirler prays. After this pray, the Sheikh prays the "Fatiha". Following the "Fatiha" everybody stands up together with the Sheikh. The Sheikh pronounces "Ervah-i tayyibeleri Şad-ü handan ve berekat-ı ruhaniyyet-i aliyyeleri ihsan oluna, Dem- i Hazret-i Mevlana, sırr-ı Şems-i Tebriz-i kerem-i İmam-ı Ali Hu diyelim" with a high voice, loud and slow manner. All the fellows together with the "SHeikh" tilt their heads and sound with a high voice and for a period of one breath the sound "Huuu". This is the end of the Ceremony of Whirling. In this study, the Meslevi Ceremonies are also examined from the point of their appearance. The "Sema" which is also called the "Mevlevi mukabelesi" (the Ceremony of Mevlevi Whirling) is conducted in special halls refered as "Semahane" (the Whirling Hall) in the "Mevlevihane" (the Mevlevi Lodge). Generally, the "Semahane" is a round and wide hall where the floor is covered by parquet. The "Semahane" of Konya Mevlânâ Dergâh which is the center of all the Mevlevi Lodges is next to the Mevlânâ XI tDmb. and it is the hall with the large dome to the Worth of the Tomb. At every "Semahane" there exists a raised platform with its parapet in front. This platform is called the "Mutrib" (Misician's platform). To the right and left of the "Mutrib" there are raws of seats where the visitors can sit down and watch the whirling dance. The raws for ladies are placed behind the partitions. There exists a "Naat Kürsüsü" where "l\laat-ı Mevlana" and additionally a "Mesne- vihan kürsü" where the Mesnevi is pronounced and interpreted somewhere convenient in the hall. Facing the musicians place, next to it and at convenient places in the hall, there are the special posts for the Sheikh of that Convent pis the posts for the important fellows of that Convent and the Officers. The post of the Sheikh is the most important position. The Sheikh represents Mevlana here at this position. He is the represen tative of the Science of God and the realty of Mohammadiye. The color of the post is red. Red is the color of appearance and mani festation. As we know day follows the night and it starts with dawn is a tone of red. This is the beginning of a new day, and the color of manifestation. Additionally the holy Mevlana has passed away from this transitory world on Sunday the 12 th of December 1273, sometime in the evening when sunset and has passed away to the eternity and reached his God. The sunset also is a tone of red and this is the color of conjugal union. Considering such, the color of the Sheikh is red both the color of conjugal union and manifes tation. The line from the post straight to the other side is called of Equator. The sense of Equator is a degree of Greatness. It is the shortest way that takes Human to the absolute reality and solitariness. Noone never steps on this line and when someone faces this line he tilts his head with respect. The round floor for whirling is wooden parquet covered. At the very center, there exists a glass gibe or chandelier representing the sun and called the "cihannüma". There are small candles around the globe like the planets around the sun. In this study, k3 "Ayin-i Şerif" and their composers which have historical worth by accompanying the whirling dances in the Mevlevi Lodges have been listed in order, the right and exact texts of the "Âyin-i Şerif" have been found, examined from the point of their meters and they are explained in Turkish
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Dini müzik, Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi, Mevlevilik, Music, Religious music, Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi, Mawlawiyya