Boğaziçi İskele Meydanlarının Mekansal Fonksiyonel Ve Kültürel Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi : Ortaköy Meydanındaki Düzenleme Çalışmalarının Değerlendirilmesi

Kara, Gülayşe
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Tez çalışması kapsamında açık mekan kavramı ve bunun en iyi örneği olan meydanlar, tasarım açısından, fonksiyonel ve fiziksel özellikleri açısından Batı toplumlarındaki ve eski Türk kentlerindeki meydan anlayışı incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın ana konusu, Osmanlı Türk şehirlerindeki meydan gruplarından olan "İskele meydanları ve bunların mekansal, fonksiyonel ve kültürel özelliklerinin incelenmesidir". Altı bölümden oluşan çalışmanın, 1. Bölümde, konunun amacı, yöntemi ve kapsamı açıklanmış tır. 2. Bölüm, ilgili konuda geliştirilen çalışmaya temel olma sı amacıyla "Kentsel mekan ve kentsel dış mekan" kavram larının ardından meydanların oluşumlarını, formlarını ve fonksiyonlarını inceleyerek bunların tarih, içinde oluş muş olan meydanlara nasıl yansıdığının ele alındığı bö lümdür. 3. Bölüm kapsamında, Eski Türk şehirlerindeki meydan anlayı şı, Osmanlı ve Selçuklu dönemlerindeki meydanların özel likleri ele alınmış ve iskele meydanları kapsamlı olarak incelenmiştir. 4. Bölümde, alan çalışmasına konu olan Ortaköy yerleşmesi ve Ortaköy meydanı tüm yönleriyle ele alınmış, meydan için Beşiktaş Belediyesi tarafından yapılmış olan yeni düzenleme çalışmasının tanıtımı ve uygulama durumu in - celenmiştir. 5. Bölümde, Ortaköy meydanında kullanıcılarla, meydanın yeni düzenlemesine yönelik yapılmış olan anket çalışma sının sonuçları ve değerlendirilmesi verilmiştir. 6. Bölüm sonuç bölümüdür ve kısa bir değerlendirme yapıl - mıştır.
There is an urban space that man perceives within the superficial and natural environment in sensual and emotional terms, evaluates and grasps subjectively. Urban space is a whole formed by structures, perceived by citizens, where all urban activities relate to each other. Urban space is evaluated and built in accordance wiht social, economic, psychological, aesthetical and physical needs. When an urban space is created, the main purpose should be to provide a comfort of living in a different dimension to man as a social animal. Furthermore, urban space should be organized in such a manner to meet the requirements and cultural values of individuals and groups. K Urban spaces may as much be in motion as have a certain stability. Wide roads and boulevards are linear urban spaces, surraunded by buildings or green elements to gain a more distinctive quality. Building islands and squares are stationary urban spaces. And there is a continuous relationship between the urban spaces in motion and those which are stationary. The most apparent example of outdoor urban spaces is the square. Stationary nature of an urban square enables us to create a static space. Square means a flat, wide and open space where people gather, mostly surrounded by buildings. It is generally considered to be the heart of a city, and acts as the center where such important urban functions as commercial, religious and administrative activities are realized or interrelated. The square may either form spontaneously or is formed by various determining factors. However, there are planned squares too. Development of the square depends on its physical dimensions as well as the needs and density of its users. Changes on social, political, technical and economic conditions of a city directly reflect on its squares. The square is also a gathering space to which the behaviours, social and cultural lives of the people reflect. It is affected by social, political and economic values. As a requirement of the gathering function, the square should be as closed as possible to keep its relationship with the outdoor spaces at minimum level. Main factors which determine the form of a square include the surrounding buildings, their relationships with each other, and the roads opening to the roads opening to the square. However, forms of the squares surrounded by significant buildings and situated within centers where urban activities are intense can shape with regard to their relationships with other squares, contrariness, proportion and rhythm, and can change when necessary. xiii Forms of the squares are affected by various physical, cultural and natural factors. The main function of the square is considered to be a center where people can gather and carry out social activities. The squares has important functions in the context of urban pattern. It is the natural setting for the major religious and civic buildings, for fine sculpture and fountains; it is a focal point for the entertainment and gathering of people; it is a shopping area in the city; it is a space around which residential housing is arranged; it is also a significant element of the street pattern. Usually a square will fulfill more than one function at a time. A square is the place where the people from different social classes can mix and where human communication takes place. I may also have the function of facilitating communication and interaction between people and groups, including recreation, conversation and entertainment, The square also serves the public as a communal area. The social factors which affect the uses of the square relate mostly to the way of life of the society living in the city. Free spaces and squares changed in terms of their forms and functions in the history. Changing political values as well as soeio-eultural and economic values reflect to free and open spaces. As a result of this reflection, squares created in different ages have different characteristics. Squares kept on forming in different shapes until now. Although the same phenomena are apparent in the essence, ever increasing population of cities have reflected to the cities. Throughout the history, the concept of single square left its place to the concept of multiple squares. Today each historic square is also an architectural, pedestrian or commercial one, and in general such architectural and official buildings as municipal offices and town houses are dominant elements of the squares. Squares are spaces playing an important role in the realization of the social, psychological and cultural integrity. Although they somewhat lost their importance throughout the ages, they have tinned into significant spaces as pedestrian areas, shopping centers or open public spaces, and undergone various arrangements. The main purpose of the square arrangement is to interpret the needs and characteristics of people, which are the most important element of the square, in accordance with the relevant functions and to adapt this interpretation to the spatial order. XXV In Seljuk and Ottoman Cities, formation and function of the square is different. For Turkish people, a square is defined as an enclosed space surrounded by buildings on at least three sides and dominated by a major building interms of form. Funetionnaly, a square is a structurally designed organisation as a flame for human activities and for urban functions. We can say that six key factors affect the formation of the squares in the Seljuk and Ottoman Cities. These factors are; 1. The type of the city 2. The geographical position of the city 3. the topography of the city 4. The climate of the city 5. The social and cultural variables 6. The economic and political factors These factors directly or indirectly influence the functions and the physical characteristics of the squares. The squares in the Seljuk and Ottoman Cities are fundamentally derived from the functional needs of Turkish society and they are urban spaces serving the whole city interms of civic, ceremonial, religious, commercial, social, educational, cultural, residential and tiransporMionfunctions. At the end, there are two major types of square in the Seljuk and Ottoman Cities in Türkiye. 1. Informal squares 2. Formal squares Informal squares are represented by three different types; A. Commercial squares B. Residential squares C. Qvay squares Formal squares are represented by two types; A. Educational squares ? B. Governmental squares Main subject of this research is qvay squares in Istanbul.Qvay squares are public spaces formed in front of ports, for serving the functions of maritime transport, social gathering and recreation. In this research, the XV maritime transport, social gathering and recreation. In this research, the squares which have been examined under the topic of " qvay squares " are the ones along the Bosphorus shores. These particular squares have developed in local ports next to qvay buildings dealing with selling tickets and giving information. The qvay squares are surrounded by residential blocks or they are located in residential areas so they also possess residential activities. The second important function of the qvay squares in social gatherings and recreation. The spaces in front of the ports gradually became recreational areas with social and communication functions, with cafes, restaurants, and similar places. Today, in every qvay squares one can find a local mosque near the port building, and also restaurants, cafes, small shops and banks. These squares are swarming with people especially during weekends. Open bazaars for handicrafts and antiques open every weekend making the squares more lively and attractive places. Although, there is a mosque in every qvay square, people go to the squares specifically for other social activities but not for religious purposes. In this research, I analysed Ortaköy qvay square, its functional and physical characteristics and I did a general inquiry with users of the fishermen's villages set up at both sides of the Bosphorus during the Byzantine Empire. During the early times of the Ottoman Empire, it was used as a holiday and recreational space; and later it was developed as a dwelling district during the realm of Süleyman the magnificent and got its present name. In the 19th. century, on considirable population settled in Ortaköy, so that many new houses were built, and Büyük Mecidiye Mosque, built by Architect Nigogos Balyan upon order by Sultan Abdiilmeeid, became the symbol of the district. Today, this mosque and its surroundings are onder protection and were declared a protected area. In the last years, the square which formed in front of the mosque and the qvay building became very attractive. Its users were students, Ortaköy's people, artists and people who interest with cultural activities. But, the square is not comfortable for the users, it must be arranged. So, municipality of Beşiktaş re-arranged Ortaköy Square in 1991. The building surrounding the square are good examples of the 19th. century Ottoman civil architecture. The mosque, church and synagogue surrounding the square give the idea of living together for different feligion and for different culture. XVI The main aim of the re-arrangement is to do a transformation on the functional, physical and social characteristics of the square. To transforme Ortaköy Square to cultural and historical center of Istanbul. At the end, the users of Ortaköy Square aren't pleased from the reorganization. They think that the image of Ortaköy Square is changed completely but it isn't a good ehangement, social and cultural differences in the users transformed Ortaköy an entertainment center.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Kentsel tasarım, Urban design , İstanbul-Boğaziçi, Piers, İstanbul-Boğaziçi, İskeleler