Yapı alt sistemlerinin bütünleştirilmesi

Serteser, Nuri
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Genellikle her binanın "bütünleşmiş" olarak tanımlanması mümkün dür. Ancak her binanın bilinçli alarak bütünleştirildiği söylenemez. Yanlızca fiziksel formu bütünleştirilmiş binalar, gerçek anlamda bir bütünlük ifade etmez. Bütünleştirme ihtiyacı yapı ile birlikte başlar. Yapının kendisi bir sistem olarak ele alındığında, bu bütünü oluşturan başkaca alt sistemlerin varlığından söz edilebilir. Günümüzde hızlı bir gelişim gösteren yapı teknolojisinde, yapının alt sistemleri olarak adlandırabileceğimiz, strüktür, kabuk, mekanik- elektrik ve iç öğeler alt sistemlerine alt çok sayıda alternatif mev cuttur. Başarılı bir bütünleştirme için bu alternatiflerin neler ol gunun ve hangi kombinezonların, nasıl bütünleştirileceğinin bilinmesi gereklidir. Bu çalışma başlıca beş bölümden oluşmaktadır: 1. Bölüm : Konuya giriş niteliğinde olup konunun tanıtımı, arka planı ve bu konuda daha önce yapılmış çalışmaları içermektedir. 2. Bölüm : Yapı alt sistemlerine ait güncel teknolojik seçenekler ve ele alınan bütünleştirme modeli anlatılmaktadır. Ayrıca yapının performans kavramı da bu bölümde işlenmektedir. 3. Bölüm : İncelemeye esas alınan model değerlendirilmekte ve ince lemeye esas alınan binaların nasıl belirlendiği konusu ele alınmaktadır. k. Bölüm : Model yardımıyl-a incelenen binaların, bütünleştirmeler yönünden incelenmesi anlatılmaktadır. 5. Bölüm : Konuya ilişkin sonuç ve önerileri içermektedir.
Every building that has ever been used has been integ rated, but integration has rarely been a concious process. The word integration has not has a precise meaning in the domain of building, and for this reason integration has not been consciously sought. Integration results without intention because the criteria that serve as the basis for design are not specific to systems; they are specific to the building as a whole. When criteria come into play through the building, they integrate the physical form automatically. Systems integration occurs in every building, deliberately or not." [Rush, s.3]. In early stages of the design, decision makers come together to review the project. Then, they continue to work separately without communication with each other sufficiently. Architect draws, engineers calculate and at the end they put together their individual efforts to finalize the design specifications. It's obvious that with such an attitude, many inconsistencies arise when the drawings are superimposed. An oversimplified solution to this problem is to make modifications in architectural and engineering drawings. In fact, these modifications continue to be made even until the completion of the construction. "Integration exists as a tangible presence in the materials and machines making up the building. The integration of criteria is evident in the activities possible within the building. Each design decision not only defines the physical combinations and levels of interaction materially, but also determines how easily the intended activities can be accomplished. The building represents either potential resistance or support, and may either deter or enhance an activity." [Rush, s.317j. A building, whether built or not, can be viewed as a system that consists of certain subsystems. To achieve a successful integration of these subsystems, first it is necessary to analyze their preferred alternatives in contemporary buildings. -Vll- In principle, a building is composed of four distinct subsystems that can be distinguished from each other functionally. These subsystems, which are listed below, do not generally interfere with each other and can be combined in various ways to create a complex entity. 1. Structural subsystem. 2. Envelope subsystem. 3. Mechanical-Electrical subsystem. k. Interior subsystem. Structure of the building maintains the equilibrium among forces. The building structure must resists dead loads and live loads affected upon as well as loads created by wind and seismic motion. It includes slabs, shells, frames, bearing walls and so on. Envelope is a kind of cover that wraps up the building. Thus, it includes roof assembly and external walls. The main function of the envelope is to protect the building users from affects of the climate. It must also resist the physical degradation. Mechanical-electrical subsystem provides services to the building users. The complexities and the sizes of this subsystem may change depending upon the building function. Generally as the buildings get larger and taller, the complexity and variety of these services expand. This subsystem controls heat transfer, power supply, mechanical transportation equipment, water supply and waste disposal, refuse disposal, fire control, mechanical ventilation and air conditioning, artificial lighting, security systems etc. Interior subsystem includes finishings and furniture in the interior of the building. In other words, the interior is what is visible from inside of the buildings. It is also related to the visual characteristics of the surfaces. So interior design decisions affect the visible integration of the interior spaces. To comprehend the issue of integration of building subsystems, it is also necessary to know these subsystems are generally combined' with each other at different levels. -viii- Five different levels of integration are possible between two building subsystems. They are based on an identifiable physical relationship. These levels are: 1. Remote level: At this level, subsystems are remote from each other. There is not any physical connec tion between them. 2. Touching level: At this level, some kind of a contact is necessary between two building subsystems, but not a permanent one. One of the subsystems stays on the other by gravity. 3. Connected level: At this level, two building subsystems are connected with a permanent adhesive, clips, tie, etc. 4. Meshed level: At this level, subsystems share the same space and can be physically connected. But it is necessary to know whether they are connected or meshed. Generally the meshed level is preferred over the connected level. 5. Unified level: If two subsystems are unified, they are not easily separated. They share their physical form and are not distinct. By referring to this key, it is possible to examine how building subsystems are integrated with each other. A variety of combinations are possible in the integration of building subsystems. The four subsystems in question can be integrated in two, three and four system combinations. But, all these possibilities have not the same integration potential. The integration model developed in a research project sponsored by the AIA, shows that some system combinations may be eliminated while integrating the building subsystems. By eliminating all two, three and four subsystem combinations down to two and further judging the accuracy of them, a compact table depicting the most valuable two subsystem combinations can be drawn. According to this study, there are seventeen possible two subsystem combinations in the integration of building subsystems. -IX- It is important to depict the kind of integration and which subsystems are integrated. In order to achieve this, a kind of "bubble diagrams" have been used. Through these diagrams, the designer can set the principles for subsystems integration in his or her building, before fully deciding upon the materials and the subsystems that will be used. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the subsystems or some significant buildings recently constructed in Istanbul are integrated. This study comprises five chapters: Chapter Gne: In this chapter, after reviewing its background, the problem undertaken in the thesis is defined. then, the earlier studies carried on in Turkey and at abroad on this problem is briefly exa mined and the objectives of the research are stated with its scope and limitations. Chapter Two: This chapter is devoted to a full analysis of the "integration of building subsystems" concept and the model being adapted to be applied to certain cases in Turkey. In order to achieve a successful integration, it is necessary to review the current alternatives of building subsystems. A number of alternatives commonly used in contemporary practice are discussed in this chapter. While analyzing these building subsystem alternatives, some prominent engi neers currently active in the design ofsome high-tech buildings in Turkey have been consulted. Two significant models are met in the literature which were particularly developed to analyze the integration of building subsystems. One of them, developed in Britain by Barton, investigates the integration of the mechanical- electrical subsystem. The other model which was prepared under the sponsorship of the AIA, represents a more general approach to the question. The rest of this chapter examines haw the adapted model is applied in practice and the relations between the building performance and the integration of building subsystems. Chapter Three: This chapter starts with a discussion on the suitability of the model to the planned case studies and on how these cases are selected. In order to analyze the selected cases with respect to the ?x- integration af their respective subsystems, a survey format has been developed by also consulting with some practicing experts. liJhen the survey started, chief architect and design engineers of each building are interviewed and the prepared survey format is filled according to their responses. Chapter Four: In this chapter, the results and findings of the research is presented. Typical sections of each building selected for the case studies are given together with the bubble diagrams drawn to display how their subsystems are integrated. In addi tion, the particular subsystems of each case are des cribed in detail according to the responses received from their designers. Chapter Five: This last chapter presents conclusions and the recommendations.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Bütünleşme, Yapı sistemleri, Integration, Structure systems