Gemi elektrik üretim ve dağıtım sisteminde generatörlerin simülasyonla izlenmesi ve denetimi bilgisayar programı

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Tarih
1997
Yazarlar
Gündüz, Taner
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu tezde sunulan çalışma, Gemi Elektrik Üretim ve Dağıtım Sistemindeki Generatörlerin bilgisayar aracılığıyla otomasyonunu, denetimini, izlenmesini ve hata teşhisini sağlayacak bir sistemin incelenmesi ve simülasyon programının yapılmasıdır. İzleme ve denetim sisteminde bilgisayar kullanılması hedeflendiğinden bilgisayar ağırlıklı bir kaynak araştırması yapılarak günümüzde yaygın olarak kullanılmaya başlanan Veri Tabanlı Kontrol ve Denetleme Sistemleri ile Erken Uyarıcı Dinamik Bakım Yöntemleri de inceleme kapsamına alınmıştır. Bölüm l'de, gemi elektrik üretim ve dağıtım sistemi hakkında genel bilgiler derlenerek kurulacak sistemin temel yapısı incelenmiştir. Bilgisayarla bilgi toplama ve denetim hakkında derlenen bilgiler ise ikinci bölümde verilmiştir. Bu bölümde bilgi toplama ve denetim yöntemleri ile sistemlerin entegrasyonu anlatılarak "Veri Tabanlı Kontrol ve Gözetleme Sistemlerine" bir örnek verilmiştir. Ayrıca interface bilgisayarı olarak kullanılacak Programlanabilir Kontrolörler (PLC) hakkında da bilgi verilmiştir. Sistemde kullanılacak bilgisayarlar arasındaki haberleşme konusuna da kısaca değinilmiştir. Bölüm 3'de, ise döner elektrik makinaları için geliştirilmekte olan bilgisayarlı durum izleme sistemleri incelenmiştir. Bölüm 4'de, çalışmada ele alınan gemi elektrik sisteminin modellenebilmesi için Gemi Elektrik Sisteminde Üretim ve Dağıtım Sisteminde durum izleme ve kontrol ihtiyaçları çıkartılmıştır. Bölüm 5'de, gemi elektrik sistemlerinde tespit edilen ihtiyaçlara göre izleme ve denetim fonksiyonları belirlenmiştir. Bu fonksiyonlara göre hazırlanan bilgisayar programı ve açıklayıcı notlar Ek-A'dadır.
Over the last decade, a lot of effort has been devoted to the improvement of performance of Electric Power Generation and Distribution Systems. The utilization of dijital computer technology and the use of extremely sophisticated CAD/CAM programs have enabled the engineers to design and develop nearly perfect Generation and Distribution Systems. As the research work in this field continues, an urgent need to automation, control, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of such complex systems has become apparent. It has been proven that a computer controlled monitoring and control system can handle the management of an Electric Power Generation and Distribution System more effectively than a classical control system. On the other hand, engineering has been considering not only the computer control methods of a Generation and Distribution System, but also methods of parameter estimation, condition monitoring and diagnosis in order to establish effective maintenance of the system. The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the computer modeling of the real-time control mechanism of Electrical Power Generation and Distribution System of a ship. The study involves a computer program which simulates two diesel-generator sets and a distribution switchboard of a ship and development of a total automation, control, monitoring and fault diagnosis system. In this work, fundamental of the Electric Generation and Distribution System of a ship is given in the first chapter. Following chapters contain general knowledge about XI . data acquisition and control system,. condition monitoring and fault diagnosis systems for rotating machines,. condition monitoring and control requirements of ship's Electric Power Generation and Distribution System,. condition monitoring and control functions of ship's Electric Power Generation and Distribution System. As a result, a computer simulation program is given. In this program, two fictitious diesel-generator sets and a distribution switchboard have been chosen as the Electric Power Generation and Distribution System model. The model has been studied and analyzed completely. Using the results of this work, the control and monitoring parameters/requirements are determined. In the forth chapter,It has been proven that the following requirements are sufficient for automation, control and monitoring of a diesel-generator sets of a ship: I. Start/stop and monitoring of the electric power generation sets Selection of operation mode Pre- working procedures of the sets Start of the sets Stop of the sets Monitoring of the sets !. Synchronization and on/off procedures Synchronization Generator circuit-breaker On/off procedure Transfer circuit-breaker On/off procedure Unessential consumer circuit-breaker On/off procedure J. Frequency/voltage and power control Frequency and voltage control procedure Power control procedure Requirement of power Power decreasing on overload 4.Generator request management. Power-on sequence of generator sets »1 . Request of generator set 5.Fault check, diagnosis and protection. Data analyze and fault diagnosis. Emergency power-off of generators. Emergency stop of generating sets The developed Electric Power Generation and Distribution automation and monitoring system is composed of a main monitoring and control computer, an interface computer and generating set's sensor/actuator block. But infact, sensor/actuator block and interface computer have been modeled as a part of the main control computer and simulated by the computer program. The developed simulation program is composed of several functional modules. Each module performs independent tasks, to fulfill the requirements of the overall control system. Every sensor is simulated by a controllable bar or a command switch, value of which can be changed. By this way, anyone can change the parameters and system sensor outputs in order to initiate a sequence. Main module of the program contains types of the required system parameters as global variables. Other important program modules are as follows:. GOSFORM Procedures : Performs to show the forms, start/stop or reset of the generator sets, on/off or reset the generator circuit-breaker, synchronization process of the system. GENİ 1FORM Procedures : Performs to change the values of the sensors belonging to Genii, start/stop or reset of the Genii, on/off or reset the generator circuit-breaker of Genii, monitoring and diagnosis of Genii, displaying the condition of the Genl 1. GEN12FORM Procedures : Performs to change the values of the sensors belonging to Gen 12, start/stop or reset of the Genl 2, on/off or reset the generator circuit-breaker of Genl2, monitoring and diagnosis of Genl2, displaying the condition of the Gen 12. LOADBANK Procedures : Performs to load the generators with active and reactive power. XII! . EVENTLIST Procedures : Performs to keep the events in a form as follows: Date, Time,Event. By using this list, it is possible to make statistical analysis.. ALARMSUMMARY Procedures : Performs to display the real-time alarm list. In this system model, interface computers are to be used to provide the communication between the main control and monitoring computer and the generator sets. The interface computers are separate units that can connect sensors data and commands as a real-time between system computer and generation/distribution system. A very high performance computer board and a sophisticated sensor interface electronics are the principal parts of the interface computers. The data transferred is carried out using a very high rate bi-directional and secure serial link. The interface computers are also capable of detecting abnormal working conditions and taking action incase of emergencies. The sensor outputs are fed into a sensor interface electronic board. In this board, sensor outputs are signal conditioned by using the appropriate techniques. This work has been proven that a computer controlled Electric Power Generation and Distribution System of a Ship may be very effective and reliable. This research may be expanded in such a way that real system may be designed to see the results of the thesis. xw
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Benzetim, Bilgisayar destekli denetim, Elektrik dağıtım sistemleri, Elektrik üretimi, Gemiler, Simulation, Computer aided control, Electric distribution systems, Electricity generation, Ships, Generators
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