Güneydoğu Anadolu'da Halk İnanışları Üzerine Bir İnceleme

Işık, Ömer
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Hazırladığımız "Güneydoğu Anadolu'da Halk İnanışları" adlı çalışma başlıca dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci Bölüm olan "giriş" bölümünde, çalışmanın amaç ve kapsamı belirtilmiştir. İkinci Bölümde, konunun iyice anlaşılması ve sağlıklı veriler elde edebilmesi için gerekli olan bilgi-bilim ilişkileri verilmiştir. Ana bilim dallarının (Formel Bilimler, Doğa Bilimleri, Sosyal Bilimler) genel özellik ve metotları kısa ve öz şekilde incelenerek, halk inanışlarının Sosyal Bilimler- İnsan Bilimleri anabilim dalı içinde yer aldığı tespiti yapılmıştır. Daha sonra "Sosyal Bilimler-İnsan Bilimleri" ana dalı içinde irdeleme yapılarak önce "Sosyoloji" sonra "Folklor (Halk Bilimi) bilim dallarına inilmiş ve kutsallık- olağan üstünlük özellikleri nedeniyle "Din" ile ilintileri ve gerekli bilgileri verilmiştir. Üçüncü Bölümde, "Anadolu Halk İnanışları" genelinden hareketle, "Güneydoğu Anadolu Halk İnanışları" tez konusuna geçilmiştir. Bölgede tespit edilen inanışlar konularına göre (loğusalık/ doğum, çocuk, düğün- evlenme, ölüm, hayvanlar, genel yaşam) başlıkları altında altı gurupta tasnif edilmiştir. Dördüncü Bölüm, "Sonuçlar" bölümüdür. Bu çalışma sonucunda varılan "halk inanışlarının" özelliklerinin tespitidir, Kaynak kişilerin inanışlar hakkındaki düşünceleri, tarafsız bir şekilde tespit edilip verilmiştir.
Study entitled as "Folk Believes in Southeastern Anatolia" consists of four sections. In introduction section, key terms relating to belief and knowledge are defined leading to the interaction between metaphysics and science. These are the terms such as assumption, conviction, hypothesis, knowledge, supersitition, faith, etc. i In the second section of study, emphasis is given on knowledge and science. Science, conditions and characteristics of scientific knowledge are defined in terms of positive science. Sciences are classified in three main groups one of which is "Social Sciences". 1 -Formal Sciences 2-Nature Sciences-Positive Sciences 3-Social Sciences Social sciences is the field of folk believes and do not have all the standards of positive approach such as objectivity. This new methodology applies to social sciences is called "critical approach". Finally, being the member of the social sciences "folklore" is defined under a separate title. In the third section background of relation between folklore and religions is given. Believes in Southeastern Anatolia are listed in groups according to their subjects. Great emphasis is given on "gin" as a separate subject-matter. In conclusion section, all the information about the folk believes obtained through sociological studies is summed up and it has been determined that obstacles and handicaps are observed in utilizing this information within the scope of positive sciences. As positive sciences ignore the fact that people have been experiencing some logically unexplainable events for ages, medical sciences fail to heal the health problems caused by "genius". Secton I - introduction: In this section, some key terms related to science and belief are explained and emphasis is given to the intricate relation between belief and scientific knowledge. Belief generally means to trust and relay on assumption; "itikat" in old Turkish, "inanç" in Turkish, "croyance" in French, "glauben" in German, "credenza" in Italian. Other key terms are the terms such as assumption, conviction, hypothesis, knowledge, superstition, faith etc. Belief takes over where the knowledge is terminated. People asserted their imagination when they were unable to reason the unknown phenomenon. They believed in the things they imagined. By this way they met their cultural, economical and social needs. It is the mission of science to scrutinize the basis of the believes. Both knowledge and belief result from historical evolutions under certain circumstances. For this reason, the fields of sciences which have the believes as subject-matter span from the past to the future. V Assumptions relating to believes are not based on proof and reality but on suppositions. While scientific assumptions are the subject of physics, believes are the subject of metaphysics. Believes to some extent hold value from scientific point of view. However, their value does not emerge from their reality but from their role in social and economical aspects of the life. Section II: In this section relations between knowledge and science were explained so that the matter of believes can be understood easily. General features and methods of main sciences (Formal Sciences, Nature Sciences, Social Sciences) were explained briefly and anonymous believes is fixed to be within Social - Human sciences. Scientific study is the systematic and objective study of the experimental phenomenon. Scientific knowledge is the knowledge gained as a result of the scientific study. Experimental, objective and systematic standards are generally accepted by social researchers but evaluated in a different way. Formal sciences are mathematics and logic. Significant characteristic of these sciences is that their subject is the principles and symbols which are accepted beforehand. These subject-matters do not exist in nature, they are only symbols. For this reason some scientists do not regard the mathematics and logic as science but only secondary sciences to the major sciences. Some of them, on the other hand, determines the assurance of a knowledge with its affinity to mathematics. Natural sciences (positive sciences) adopt the subject-matters from the nature. They try to explain the reason and result relations within the natural events by menas of the laws they deduced through the experimental methodology. Natural sciences have five characteristics : a. Scientific knowledge is the knowledge that has a certain methodology. b. Scientific knowledge is a non specific, universal knowledge. c. Scientific knowledge is a definite knowledge. d. Scientific knowledge is a unified knowledge. e. Scientific knowledge is an objective knowledge. Not all of these criteria apply to the social sciences. Universality in particular is controversial in social sciences. For instance, cultural values differ from one society to another. However, social sciences are as much objective as the positive sciences. Social sciences study the human behaviors from various aspects. Human behaviors are defined through the values, believes, demands, physical and social needs cultural norms, education and habits. Psychology, sociology, social anthropology, history, politics constitute the social sciences. Some mathematical methods such as statistics is employed by social sciences. However social sciences are not merely the field of statistics. Method of explanation is also differ in social sciences from nature sciences. Objects are not studied internally in nature sciences. On the other hand in social groups and individuals, understanding and explaining requires internal research. In short, "hermeneutic" approach prove that both the subject and methodology in social sciences is different from in nature sciences. VI Some features peculiar to social sciences: a.Human behaviors are complicated. Although there are similarities and regular patterns within human behaviors, compared to nature sciences there is more complication which causes difficulty in understanding and assuming. b. Human reactions: Human beings behave different when they are aware of the studies carried out on themselves. They do not express their actual feelings and thoughts while being observed. c.Time and place: Social phenomenons differ from time to time and from place to place. Researches made in a certain time and the results are unique to that time. Section III: Within this section "Believes in Southeastern Anatolia" were classified relating to their contents. There are 50 believes found out for "giving birth and childbed", 33 for "child", 9 for "marriage and rural weddings", 19 for "marriage and town weddings", 6 for "death", 29 for "animals", 77 for "everyday life in general", 37 for "health", 33 for "evil eye", 35 for "stones", 18 for "dreams", 17 for "seasons". Each topic was studied under its relevant title. Human life is built on three important stages as birth, marriage and death. It gives us the similarities and differences between various societies once the rituals and religious habits have been investigated during the experience of birth, marriage and death. Similarities and differences also constitute the national features of the cultures. As the folk believes forms the basis of these stages they should be investigated in scope of social sciences. Major approache to the study of believes is to considere the phenomenon true and real. Main features of the believes: a. They are gethered from the persons, places and events. b.The told and the believed has the element of convincing. c.Such persons and events have the quality of metaphysics. Religious character is the dominant feature of the believes. Holiness and extraordinariness are observed. Religious habits has the role in decent social life. Persons who feel hopeless or in dilemma resource to the help of some religious people on whom they attribute holy power. They try to seek relief and make their life easier by this way. Human beings are curious by nature. They always strugle and seek for the unknown. But the main phenomenon for which human beings yet have not found an answer is "gin and devil". These are most frightening terms for believers. Gins are called "kepoz", "pirabok", pirelk", "bizden iyiler", "al karısı", "al bastı", "karakura" etc. in the region of Diyarbakır. In Chamanism karakura is the gin who frightens the the women who have given birth recently and takes their lungs out. Relevant information are given in holy books. Bible: Markus 5:1-20; Lucas 8:26-39 Koran: Fussilet 14, Saffat 158, Enam 128,139, Hicr 27, Zariyat 56, Rahman 15,33,35, Ahkaf 29,30,31, Cin 9,26,27. Section IV: This is the section of "Conclusion". VI Conclusions drawn from this study which covers 360 numbers of believes in Southern Anatolia are listed below: l.Folk believes are the anonymous cultural constituents which spreads to other societies and pass on to future generations through the language and myth or maintaining the practical experience. 2. Folk believes derive from a person, an event, an object or a place. 3. Folk believes are extraordinary. 4. Folk believes have holly aspects. 5. Phenomenon of genius and its effects is prominent within the folk believes. Believes relating to genius are consistent with the relevant contents in the Old Testament, New Testament and the Koran. Especially the believes aiming to repel the bad effect of genius relating to birth and health are implemented as most common. 6. People interviewed comment on the matter so that positive science does not adopt the phenomenon of genius as subject-matter and accordingly medical sciences today fail the related problems.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2000
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 2000
Anahtar kelimeler
Halk Bilimi (Folklor), Sosyoloji, Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgesi, Halk inançları, İnançlar, Folklore, Sociology, Southeastern Anatolia region, Public beliefs, Beliefs