Farklı Konut Tiplerinin Ve Yerleşim Düzenlerinin Arsa Payı Açısından İrdelenmesi

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Tarih
1997
Yazarlar
Aşık, Şakir
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu tez çalışması ile; endüstrileşme ve hızlı kentleşmenin bir sonucu olarak terk edilmeye başlanan az katlı bağımsız konutlarla birlikte yeni yaşam biçiminde ortaya çıkan sorunların çözümünde, konut mekanının güncel koşullara uygun olarak yeniden organizasyonunda az katlı sıra ev yerleşim biçiminin uygulanabilirliliği ve bu konut seçeneğinin sağladığı imkanlar saptanacaktır. Tez 4 ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Bölüm 1; Bu bölümde, çalışmanın amaç, kapsam ve yöntemleri saptanmaktadır. Bölüm 2; Bu bölümde, konut biçiminden kaynaklanan problem belirlenip, konutun aile ve toplumsal önemi, konut sorununun boyutları saptanmakta, ilgili kamu kurum ve kuruluşlarının uygulayabilecekleri politikalar önerilmektedir. Ayrıca konut gereksiniminin nedenleri belirlenip, endüstrileşme ile birlikte konutun dünyada ve Türkiye'de gelişim trendi incelenerek konu genel hatlarıyla tanıtılmaktadır. Bölüm 3; Bu bölümde, konut edinme amacı ve kullanım biçimi belirlenip, küçük konutlar ve çok katlı konutlarda ortaya çıkan fiziksel ve sosyal sorunların istatistiki verileri saptandıktan sonra, az katlı konut eğilimi, kullanım biçimi, önemi ve kentleşmeye etkisi belirlenip, dünyada ve ülkemizdeki gelişimi örneklerle açıklanmaktadır. Yine bu bölümde bina maliyetini etkileyen faktörler bina ve yerleşim düzeni ölçeğinde belirlenip, konutun planlanmasına ve yapılaşmasına etki eden kriterler ve kaynaklar tanımlanmaktadır. Bu bölümde problemi oluşturan kaynaklar ve çözüme yönelik bulguların detayları saptanmaktadır. Bölüm 4; Bu bölümde en az bina maliyeti ve arsa payı ile oluşturulabilecek az katlı konut biçimi saptanıp, aynı büyüklükteki bir konutun çok katlı konut biçiminde çözümlenmesi halinde konut başına gereksinim duyulacak arsa büyüklüğü karşılaştırması yapılarak, az katlı bağımsız konutun güncel koşullar içinde uygulanabilirliliği saptanmaktadır. Bu tez kapsamında araştırma yöntemi olarak; bina üst sistem açılım seviyesinden başlanarak bina alt sistemine doğru gidilerek, konuta ilişkin çeşitli unsurlar incelenecek, elde edilen bulgulara göre uygun bina biçimi ve yerleşim düzeni saptanacaktır.
As a result of the demographic movement coming from the different reasons, house requirement can't be afforded by the existent conditions in the urban areas especially metropolitan areas. Multi-stroried houses have been built by the owner and producer of the house because of the high profit supply. However, the user section which create demand, aren't satisfied from this kind of life because of the social and physical problems occur in these houses. Beside of this, important population mass with house requirement can't occur demand to the houses offered to them because of the economic insufficiency and, the contrast of the houses to their life style. They prefer to meet their house requirement by squatters and unlawful buildings. Many of the people pleased from living this multi-stroried houses and all other income groups prefer individual buildings with garden. The problems arise from house requirement and house style can be solved by the support of appliance of low-stroried house styles to the current conditions. In this study, with the abandoned low-storied individual houses as a result of industrialization and rapid urbanization, the applicability of low-storied row housing style and the possibilities of this housing choice are examined in the solving of problems accured by the new life styles and in the reorganization of housing space according to current conditions. The most important consumption good is the house and there are many problems related with it. The task of architects, city planners and politicians is to develop and apply methods and politics to construct individual houses which low and middle income groups can ensure by their economic possibilities. The basic need for every family is house which is bought or constructed. It's the most expensive good. Having a house divide into two groups as the aim of use and investment. Housing types Property House for rent Lodging Normal house for rent Organized house for rent Individual house for rent XIII Housing types divide into two groups as property and house for rent. House for rent has different specialities as lodging and normal house for rent; normal house for rent is shaped as organized house for rent which hasn't an example in Turkey and individual house for rent. Rapid urbanisation occur as a result of the industrialisation necessitated the reorganisation of urban areas. New house styles which is not integrate with peoples life styles occur by the help of technologic possibilities. However, people never adapt themselves totally to this new house styles. The low and individual house which is the most convenient house style for this nature never lose its importance along the time. The house as an investment good increased its value incredibly and it became the most hardly accessible good with normal working conditions. The most affected group from this, is the low and individual houses. However, in the next parts, it's found statistically that in all parts of the society this kind of houses are accepted. In this examination, it's aimed to occur the same demand among the low and middle income group users and produce houses with little building land need and little building cost. The minimum building cost, infrastructure cost, designing of circumstance which affect the building style are determined and the most convenient minimum and medium quality individual house for at least four people are determined. The needed building land size for this kind of houses are compared with the same size house which take part in multi-stroried blocks individually or bilaterally when they settle according to the sunshine needed for the minimum and medium building distance. First of all, the house requirement is determined and some politics are offered for the solution of the problem at national and local level. By the industrialisation, the development of house in the world and Turkey are tried to find. The change according to the aim of having house and style of use it are examined. Physical and common life problems in small houses and multi-stroried houses from the point of user wiev are determined - on the other hand, the individual low-stroried tendency is found and the economic house style - low stroried row houses which have all the possibilities with this kind of house, building style, housing size, details and space function are determined. The factors which affect the density of settlement as building distance according to building type, slope, sunshine, type of settlement, the number of stroried are found. The survey method of the thesis examined everything about the house from the upper system to the lower system of the building. In all statistics related with the house, all the tendencies for low and middle income groups are in low-stroried house favour; however in practise, multi-stroried housing blocks are dominant. XIV In this condition which the society never accept, beside of economic effects, the most important factors are the building distance which is not convenient for science and health supported by improvement planning and by-laws. For the same size house, when the needed building distance is left, the needed minimum building land is individual, row houses with two-stroried building style. When the height of the building which is the minimum level of the building distance at flat level is practised one times, it's possible in six-stroried houses with two houses at one flat and in multi-stroried buildings the building land need per house increase gradually. Beside of the same advantages with the individual houses, row houses are practised with the following subjects:. Population density,. Lack of demand,. Economic reasons,. Construction facilities,. Traditions,. Religious reasons and privacy,. Preference factors of houses close to soil. This thesis - named as examination of different housing types and settlement orders according to land shares-brings out that the building land need and building cost is not higher in low-stroried houses and two-stroried row housing style needs much less building cost, building land establishment easiness than the other building styles. The building land need for minimum quality two-stroried, rectangular plan type, row house building order is 64 m2., for close housing land is maximum 92 m2., for the same quality close housing land is maximum 143 m2., for L plan type with 1.5 stroried row house building order is 96 m2., and for close housing land is maximum 198 m2. If the same size house is solved in individual house or apartment blocks type with convenient building distance, the building land need is much higher. If the building distance is twice the building height, none of the building style and building order for the same size house require less building need than two-stroried, rectangular plan type, row house. These houses have the same advantage with special garden land and low-stroried houses. If the back garden distance is 12 m. for a house with medium quality, individual twin building land need is 143 m2. This value is lower or higher for multi- stroried of the buildings. XV When this condition brings out at the lowest limit of the building distance, the preference of individual house to multi-stroried housing type is too far. Building styles which the building distance is less than one-stroried building height is possible only if less building land is used than minimum and medium quality individual house per land need. However, this situation is not a good solution for physical and health conditions. Unfortunately, in practise, the required building distance is neglected and multi- stroried dense housing blocks become the only housing offer style. Low-stroried row houses can not be designed for everywhere. However, designing of row housing type between multi-storied houses and low-stroried individual houses, and having family's living rights in convenient houses are possible if optimum equilibrium difference alternatives are offered. The importance of low storied houses can be summarized as the following: The relationship between nature and man, More safe to the natural disasters, Not overshadow the next buildings, The decrese in the need for close housing land, Forbidden of the intersection of the inner house activities, Safe open land for young and old people, The use of garden, The facility of construction, The low building cost, Esthetics, The increse in the open space of the city, Life style convenient to the traditions, The passing from agricultural life to the urban life, This thesis consists of four main chapters:. In the introduction part of the study, the subjects had been introduced with it's basic lines. The aim and the method of the thesis had been determined.. In the second part, factor theoretical knowledge had been put forward depend on the relationships among house, housing problem, housing demand. Problems which was formed from house form had been examined; the importance of house from the point of view of family and society dimensions of house issue had been found out, and some policies had been offered to the public sector. XVI In the third part, factors which effect the building style and building order had been tried to define by examining small houses, multi-stroried houses, ideal house preference, row house concept, building cost, environment designing and settlement density. Factors which affect the cost of building scale had been indicated. Criteria which affect the planning and construction of housing had been defined. In the fourth part, optimum design model with minimum building-land had been formed in one or two stroried individual houses. Low storied housing form had been determined according to the building cost and low building land.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Arsa payı, Konut, Yerleşim dokusu, Plo, Dwelling house, Settlement pattern
Alıntı