AT ile Gümrük Birliği'ne giderken Türk çimento, seramik ve cam sanayii

Kaya, Gürdal
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışma'da, 1995 yılı sonu itibariyle kurulması beklenen Türkiye - Avrupa Topluğu Gümrük Birliği ilişkisi incelenmiş ve bu çerçevede Türk Çimento, Seramik ve Cam Sanayii genel rekabet düzeyi araştırılmıştır. Giriş Bölümün' de bu ana amaç ve konunun işlenişi belirlendikten sonra, ikinci bölümde Ekonomik Bütünleşmeler ve onun bir aşaması olan Gümrük Birlikleri'nin iktisat teorisi incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölüm'de Avrupa Topluluğun'da Gümrük Birliği oluşumu anlatılmış ve Türkiye - AT Gümrük Birliği ilişkisi son dönem yapılan çalışmalar da göz önüne alınarak incelenmiştir. Dört, Beş ve Altıncı bölümler'de Türk Çimento, Seramik ve Cam sektörlerinin Avrupa Topluğu ile rekabet durumu bazı ekonomik göstergeler yardımıyla saptandıktan sonra Gümrük Birliği çerçevesin de değerlendirilmiştir.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic effects of Turkish cement, ceramic and glass industries on the verge of possible admittance of Turkey into the EC. The Customs Union with the EC is the most significant event Turkey come across to towards the 2000s. Another significant development is condensation of regional economic groups throughout the world. EC is looking forward becoming the largest economic union by taking precedence uniting with EFTA and then with other West European countries, and most probably with Central European countries such as Poland, Hungary, Czech and Slovenian Republics. On the other hand, upon signing of NAFTA ( North American Foreign Trade Agreement ) after long term negotiations an economic cooperation agreement has come into force between USA, Canada and Mexico. And another association led by Japan have brought the major countries of the region under the flag of APEC ( Asian and Pacific Economic Cooperation ). China having a great developing potential, and ISC ( Independent States Community ) using its best efforts in recovering its economy to become a great power should be considered as separate focal points of power. The most realistic resolution for Turkey which produces almost half of its foreign trade with EC countries seems to be realizing the CU with EC that is in the expanding process, and determining its place within the new economic formation of the world which has now attained a quadrilateral structure. For Turkey which takes actions together with Europe traditionally and, takes it as role model in its economic and social development, it has not been possible to stay out of the United Europe movement developing just nearby. It is one of the first countries which has comprehended the importance of this movement and xm applied for associative membership to the Community after one half year the 3 European Economic Community ( EEC ) has been founded in 1959. I ÜJİ Upon signing of the " agreement ( Ankara Agreement ) establishing cooperating between EEC and Turkey " on September 12, 1963 which came into force as of December 1, 1964, there has established a cooperation with EC based on the -: customs union and subsequently foreseeing full membership. *: Turkey has initiated the Transition Period, which is the term of establishment of 5? Customs Union, by determining the calendar and adopting the Additional Protokol T! on January 1, 1973. The Transition Period is based on the principle of mutual and Û stable liabilities and aims and settling the Customs Union between Turkey and EC c in stages. This period which still continues will be completed on 1.1.1996 by § achieving CU. £ European Community is a political union to be attained, as a continuation of "^ Maastirch Agreement and economic integration, by establishing European " Monetary Union, strengthening federal formation, implementing of common external trade and comman security policies, and achieving resolutions in domestic | and Justice affairs through cooperation. As of November 1, 1993 EC has been % referred as European Union (EU), and the name of European Economic | Community ( EEC ) has become European Community ( EC ). Upon these ''a definitions Turkey win from Customs Union not with EU but with EC. '"i Turkey has spent the period after 1970s in ideological discussions and in such t conformity believing that somehow or other Customs Union shall not happen. :' i However, EC is not that old, alone EC anymore; now that a lot of countries apply i for EU membership and that are more and more new participation conditions put j forward, Turkey has been gradually expelled from Europe. In such case, in order *: not to detach from Europe, the Turkish governments recently seems to be decisive \ on realizing the Customs Union on time. :~i *i ?\ Within the content of this study, in Section 2, Economic Integrations and one of their phases,economic theory of customs unions have been analyzed with certain hypothesis, and after commenting on the theory its dynamic effects have been discussed. Stages of Economic Integration - Free Trade Area (FT A) - Customs Union (CU) - Common Market (CM) xiv - Economic Union (EU) - Monetary Union (MU) Marching through CU, the effects of that aspect will have to be either static or dynamic. Static effects are interested with the chance in source dispersion of free trade, provided the economic built-up and technological level is in the same rant.Both trade-creation and trade-diversion are good examples for this. Dynamic effects shows the undergoing CU countries' economic platform and the development of this platform in time. This effects blinks at the below points. - Economies of scale - More competition - Productivity effects - Terms of trade effects - Learning effects - Increased technical progress Under these pressius effects, we expect the economical fertility to preceed. In section 3, formation of Customs Union within the European Community and the related sanctions have been emphasized; it has been attempted to analyze the relations between Turkey and EC as of commencement of the relations with the Community by Ankara Agreement up until today, and the studies which the Turkish governments have made and should make have been discused. The elements of the Customs Union Envisaged in the Agreement have been expressly laid down in Article 10. Thus it shall cover all trade in goods and shall invove; the prohibition between member states of the Community and Turkey, of customs duties on import and exports and of all charges having equivalent effect which are designed to protect national production in a manner contrary to the objectives of the Agrement, and the adoption by Turkey of the Common Customs Tariff of the Community in its trade with third countries, and an approximation to the other Community rules on external trade. The Common Market differs from a free trade area in so far as in the former the Member States no longer regulate their external trade. At the time of the signing of the Agreement the Community rules governing external trade were only rudimentary but they already comprised elements of the Common Customs Tariff and of the Common Commercial Policy. Turkey was bound to adjust her externasl trade rules in that particular field. İt meant the adoption of rules on external trade agreements ( i.e.agreements with non-Community Countries) anti- xv dumping and protective measures as these developed gradually alongside the development of the Common Customs Tariff. In brief Customs Union rules cover both the internal and the external trade of the Community, i.e. the between the Member States and the trade between the Member States and non-Community countries) From the Customs Union point of view, the difference in the development level of Turkey and the EU countries constitutes special importance. In general, Industries still in the development process and in lack of adequate protection can hardly withstand conditions of competitive economy. At the first glance, developed sectors operating with western standards may seem to be able to adapt themselves to competition. However, disadvantages stemming from the inefficient understructure of the country impose burdens on all the subsectors anyway. The ( EC ) Custom Union has come through reality from the theory of economic integration and is a level of economic integration. The aim of economic integration is in the short hand, to create a common market for the free circulation of goods and services of the economies that will be unified. While providing free circulation of the goods due to Customs Union, customs duty and similar quotas will be completely cancelled, Common Customs Tariffs ( CCT ) will be applied aganist the third countries non-members to the union as well. This situation requires Turkey to review its competitive position in every sector of industry related with EC. After 1993, fixed capital investments, which are captured by construction investments at 52 %, constitute 22.4 % of GNP. Building materials such as cement, ceramic and glass are sub-sectors contributing a great deal in producing income to constructional sector. Determining positions of these sectors in the competitive atmosphere which will occur upon Customs Union bears a major significance. \ Turkish Cement Industries produce world - quality productions by increasing its ] product quality by means of changes in technological structure. The most sensitive 3 points of this sector on the way to Custom Union are leveling the incoming costs to j the some level on Europe and unfair competition. In cement production process the | 55 % of incoming costs is electrical and heat energy and Turkey uses these \ incomes with an 30 % overhead cost according to the European Community countries. Aplying OGT ( Common custom Tarrif ) in getting kraft paper, the cost j of this income will reduce itself to the level of community countries. On the other } hand Turkey has to take some precautions to prevent the Incoming cement with \ \ i i XVI dumping rates from Ukrania, Romania, Russia, Bulgaria etc. those which are precauted by the European Community countries. Challenges both in supplying high quality raw material and also in costs of power have a negative effect on competitive power of the Turkish tile and ceramic industry which have been achieved in technological and quality aspect. Earth reserves for ceramic in Turkey are neither of large quantities nor have they an homogenous composition. Since there exists no raw material producers, every ceramic manufacturer produces the required material itself so that the cost of manufacture increases. Efforts of the manufacturer companies in developing kilning technique is crucial for energy saving. Another factor increasing costs is the companies having obliged to establish these unit within their organizations because of insufficiency of the plants providing repair and maintenance services. Such a case will affect Turkish ceramic sector from a negative aspect. From a competitive viewpoint, we can say that when demand increase in domestic market of this industrial sector causes improvement on the capacity correlated with export possibilities. Turkey will be in a powerful position aganist the Community. The glass industry, one of the oldest and most advanced sectors in Turkey, is also one of the leading sectors of the country. The glass industry, as any sector of the country, will be affected by the Customs Union. The major threat within the framework of Customs Union towards the glass sector stems from third countries rather than from EU member countries. Import of low quality, dumped price glassware from East Block countries and far East countries in particular, impose adverse effects on the domestic glass in dustry. Dimensions of this threat may expand due to the Common Customs Tariff which is a part of the Customs Union. EU Members already apply various sanction and measures against countervailing practices stemming from such countries. Turkey as well should apply similar procedures and EU norms in this respect Assuming that the above mentioned counter vailing practice of the current situtions will be abolished, the Turkish glass industry can be said to be strong enough to face the Customs Union.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Avrupa Topluluğu, Cam endüstrisi, Gümrük Birliği, Seramik endüstrisi, Çimento endüstrisi, European Community, Glass industry, Customs Union, Ceramic industry, Cement industry