Alüminyum Giydirme Cephelerde İmalat Resimlerinin Hazırlanması Ve Montaj Sürecinde Kalite Sorunu

Şener, Süheyla
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Alüminyum Giydirme Cephelerde kalitenin yükseltilebilmesi, kaliteyi etkileyen nedenler ve kararların tanımlanabilmesi ile ilgilidir. Tezin giriş bölümünde Alüminyum Giydirme Cephelerin tanımı yapılarak tarihsel gelişiminden söz edilerek, Alüminyum Giydirme Cepheye yöneliş nedenleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Tezin ikinci bölümü olan fonksiyonel bir bina elemanı olarak Alüminyum Giydirme Cepheler, taşıyıcı elemanlar ve dolgu bölümler adı altında iki kısımda incelenirken Alüminyum Giydirme Cephe sistemlerini oluşturan Stick veya Çubuk Sistem, Panel Sistem, Yarı Panel Sistem, Strüktürel Silikon Giydirme Cephe Sistemleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Tezin üçüncü bölümünde, kaliteyi etkileyen faktörlerin mimari proje hazırlanması evresinden kullanım evresine kadar olan bir süreç içinde gerçekleşeceği düşünülerek Alüminyum Giydirme Cephelerde kalite sorunu tanıtılmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde kaliteyi etkileyen faktörlerden üretim resimleri hazırlanması ve montaj evresinden söz edilmiştir. Bu bölümde üretim resimleri hazırlanması evresinde, üretim resimlerinin hazırlanmasına ilişkin kararlar, dikkat edilmesi gereken kurallar ve üretim resimlerinin hazırlanması için gerekli prosedür tanıtılmıştır. Montaj evresindeki temel sorunlar ise montajı oluşturan her bir alt basamakta meydana gelen hatalar, uyulması gereken kurallar ve dikkat edilmesi gereken noktalar bazında ele alınıp montaj kalitesinin artırımına gidilmiştir.
High tensile strenght, ease of designing complex sections, minimum maintenance requirement and exceptable cost prices of curtain walls have brought aluminium alloy profiles forward in this construction field. Chapter 1 includes introduction and historical development of aluminium curtain wall systems and also an answer to why aluminium is chosen as a curtain wall material. Fast erection of building facade Easy cleaning of building facade, Maximizing the comfort levels of buildings for people who work in these modern buildings, Temperature control, Noise control, Fire control, Air condition, Light aontrol, Maximum use of sunlight etc. are reasons for using aluminium curtain wall systems. Also quality and quality aontrol for aluminium curtain wall design, production and installation will be explained in this chapter. In chapter 2 as a functional building element, aluminium curtain walls are examined as two main groups supporting structure and filling structure. The supporting structure (Framing members) of curtain wall which are fixed back at points to the supporting structure, includes steel, steel or aluminium fixing materials and anchorage. The framing members consist of two main groups. Xlll - - One of them is connection elements ; anchorage and aluminium profiles. - The other is joints which are between mullion and transom and which depend on system. Filling structure system is made of glass, aluminium sandwich panels, and stone etc. They are placed in between sticks or panels. Glass is commonly used as a filling section system material. Glass must be chosen, stored and assembled carefully. When Glass is chosen as a curtain wall material the following specifications should be considered. 1- Light transmission and other optic specification 2- Sun heat transmission 3- Heat transmission 4- Provide ideal acoustic comfort 5- Protection against wind pressure and other load. 6- Security and safety (take care of the appearance of the facade bearing in mind the requirements of the engineer, the environment and current legislation). Chapter II, part 2 gives an introduction of aluminium curtain wall systems which are the practicaly used in the world. They are classified as 4 main groups - stick or frame systems - panel systems - semi panel systems - structural silicone systems These systems are examined according to advantages, disadvantages and erection spesification of systems. The specification of these systems are given shortly..STICK OR FRAME SYSTEMS : The component parts of the system are assembled on the site with panels being offered up to a frame. - xiv - Mullion is assembled to axis on a building facade and then transom is assembled between the mullion on side. Glazing can be in outside or in inside. These systems could not absorb dilatation due to thermal and facade movements of building. PANEL SYSTEM : Frame elements are prepared as movable, one or two axis and one floor height elements. Glass panels produced in the factory, are assembled with special equipment at the site. Panel System absorbs horizontal and vertical movements perfectly. SEMI-PANEL SYSTEM : Panels look like a one floor height horizontal great panel. Disassembled panels are assembled at the side. Glazing can be outside or in inside. This system provides an opportunity for installation control and it minimizes mistakes made in installation. STRUCTURAL SILICONE SYSTEMS : It can be classified as 2 side or 4 side structural silicone systems. This system provides full glass facade. Panels are made in a factory so it can help quick installation. This system has a great acoustic specification against air born noise. At the end of chapter 2; meaning of quality in aluminium curtain wall, what should be done for improving the quality in aluminium curtain wall systems, the relation of quality with decisions and reasons which effect quality will be explained. Quality doesn't depend on work, it depends on effort and quality of people who make production. As a result, this is total quality control. Aluminium curtain wall systems have a lot of problems which occur at different levels in chapter 3. Introduction and solution of problems are tried to be explained, in chapter 3. xv - Aluminium curtain walls process are explained from architectural design work process to use process of building. This process has 7 main steps. - Architectural design work. - Preparing an offer process. - Preparing application project process. - Preparing design production process. - Preparing factory production process. - Montage process. - Use of building process. General steps of this process introduced, and when the quality influenced decision of process step so all of them give it in a simple way. Chapter TV, part 1, examines preparations design production process and part 2 examines erection process. Design production works depending on site work. Dimension of building which depends on application will be used on production project. So it can be said that production project work depends on application. Both the works are coordinated together. Preparation of design production process has 4 main steps. They are examination of the preparing project, statistical survey, statistical survey analyse and preparation of design production. All steps are very important. Because steps must follows each other. When one of them is omitted, serious mistakes occur Every step is thought in detail one by one to prevent from mistakes. If it is necessary to explain this with an example let's think aluminium curtain wall facade coated with aluminium draft 15 mm. Metal palet connection and dimensions are calculated according to this. In preparation of production pictures dimensions are written 1 or 2 mm larger so metal plates will fit larger or smaller. If other production pictures dimensions are written true for upper facade there will be a difference between two facades. Draft of aluminium facade couldn't follow each other. Trying to correct aluminium sheet cover facade is very hard. - xvi - Due to these mistakes, production will be renewed as a result miscalculations will cost time and money. Montage process has a lot of steps. They are applique (staking out) determination of production belong 5 to others, ahcporoge installation, transom and mullion's installation, single glass profiles installation, subframe installation, fire barrier installation, vapour barriers installation, frame installation, aluminium lid (cover) installation, inside gasket installation, glazing (horizantal) transom profile cover and (vertical) mullion profile cover installation insulation. Aluminium material design works get ready in production design process, aluminium material which is produced in factory, applicated inside to building. So aluminium material design work is subject of assembly process. In montage process, all steps examined (carefully) one by one. A montage guide developed as on offer, belongs to stick systems. There is a specific point in process it can be used other systems. When ancharage assembly is made a mistake, it causes transom and mullion assembly mistake during fire barrier assembly. When some insulation is forgetten, it causes transfer of smoke floor to floor during vapour barier assembly. When some insulation is forgetten, it causes transfer of vapour from outside to inside as a result there will be humidity in building. During Glazing, buttom cover profiles assembly and screw for glazing must be make carefully. When screw of glazing is not tightened, it causes water transfer from outside to inside, in rainy days. Water has a very original specification, if there is a small hole like an pirn diameter, water transfers easily. When a mistake like this is done, some of them will be repaired but some of them not. - xvn - For example, if it is necessary to subframe or ancharage welding to other subframe or anchorage welding point must be painted with anti -corrosion paint or zinc spray. When it couldn't done, it brings a lot of mistakes together. Corrosion damage on subframe and ancharage. After frame is assembled, (person who is controller in the site, forgets to control of subframe and anchorage assembly). If there is a forgotten control point, its too late for controlling and repairing. When subframe and ancharage assembly is tried to correct, frame is pulled out. But it is very expensive. It causes huge economical dimension for preventing this mistake from uncorrect working control points is used for every steps. All mistakes are noted which are several times made for prevents them. This is philosophy for aluminium curtain wall. All systems have specific points, so design production and montage processes are prepared carefully.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Alüminyum; Giydirme cepheler; Kalite, Aluminum ; Curtain walls ;Quality