Erzincan- Merkez ilçedeki ezgilerle İdil-Ural bölgesindeki ezgilerin mukayesesi ve sonuçları

Eke, Metin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
"Erzincan-Merkez İlçedeki Ezgilerle, İdil-Ural Bölgesindeki Ezgilerin Mukayesesi ve Sonuçlan" konulu bu çalışmamız; İ.T.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsünde Sanatta Yeterlik tezi olarak hazırlanmıştır. Bu tezimde, Türk Musikîsi esas alınarak, Türk dünyası kapsamında olan, Türkiye sınırlan dışındaki Türki Cumhuriyetlerinden İdil-Ural (Tataristan-Başkurdistan- Çuvaşistan) bölgesi ezgileri ile, Erzincan-Merkez ilçe ezgileri melodi-ritm ve edebî yönden karşılaştınlmıştır. Amaç, yıllarca ihmal edilen, müzikle ilgili çalışmalarda yitirilen kültür değerlerini Türk dünyasına kazandırmaktır. Birinci bölümde, Türk, yabancı araştırmacı ve müzikologların Türk musikisinde pentatonizmin olup olmadığı hakkındaki görüşleri sunulmuştur. İkinci bölümde, Erzincan' m tarihî ve coğrafi konumu, Merkez ilçe hakkında genel bilgilere yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, İdil-Ural (Tataristan-Başkurdistan-Çuvaşistan) bölgesinin tarihi, idarî / siyasî, demografik yapısı anlatılmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde, Pentatonik müzik hakkında genel bilgiler verilmiştir, Türkiye'de ve İdil-Ural bölgesinde pentatonizm ile ilgili çalışmalardan bilgiler aktarılmıştır. Bu bölümde, ayrıca, Ural-Altay bölgesi sınırlan içinde yer alan TUVA ülkesi profesyonel müzisyenlerinden Albert KUVEZİN, Alexi SAAİA, Zheia TKACHEV ile yapılan röportajlar sunulmuştur. Beşinci bölümde, Erzincan-Merkez ilçe ezgileri ve İdil-Ural bölgesi ezgileri "İndirgeme Metodu" ile analiz edilmiştir. XVII Altıncı bölümde, Erzincan-Merkez ilçe ezgileri ve Îdil-Ural bölgesi ezgilerinin karşılaştırmalarına yer verilmiştir. Araştırmamızda, teorik ve deneysel metot izlenmiştir. Konuyla ilgili bilgiler için yerli ve yabancı kaynaklardan yararlanılmıştır. Çalışmamızda, konuya vâkıf bilim adamlarıyla röportajlar yapılmış, Ural-Altay olarak bilinen bölgeden, Tataristan ve Tuva ülkelerinden bazı müzisyenler ile bilgi alışverişinde bulunulmuştur. Ulaşılan sonuca göre, Erzincan-Merkez İlçede pentatonik özellik taşıyan ezgilerin var olduğu kanıtlanmıştır.
Erzincan has been one of the oldest settlement and trade center through up the history. The area so called İdil-Ural located in Russian Federation is an old Turkic state. This region includes three Turkic Republics "Tataristan-Başkurdistan- Çuvaşistan". Culture is one of the most important elements that forms a nation we can define culture as the combination of all kinds of emotions, ideas, languages, art, traditional elements and civilization. In this work that is the subject of our thesis we will try to compare the music of the İdil-Ural "Tataristan-Başkurdistan-Çuvaşistan" region to Erzincan region from the perspective of musical rhythm, melody and text, thus we want to investigate and emphasize the importance of the role of pentatonicism in the musical culture of the Turkish world. Various research scientific concerning İdil-Ural region were carried out but unfortunately there is no major scientific research concerning music in Turkic Republics. Pentatonic music is music which is based on a five-note scale that contains no semi-tones. It is found in Anatolian folk songs and Hungarian and Romanian folk music. The first written information on pentatonic scales can be found in the Music Encyclopedia of Maurice Curan Leviniac in which Laviniac refered to the research of Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal. Laviniac also refered to old Chinese sources for this information in this article. In addition, Turkish researchers and musicologists such as Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Ferruh Arsunar, Şenel Önaldı and the western researcher Edward Chavannes, XDC Hungarian researcher Bela Bartök, Hungarian musicologist Dr. Szabolcsi Bence have found Pentatonism in Turkish music repertory. The wide-spread influence of Turkish pentatonism is stressed by musicologists and their research from the Îdil-Ural region to Hungary. Wolfram Eberhard, the German born Chinese historian also confirms this hypothesis. Eberhard confirms this thesis in his work the Chinese History. He discusses the origin of pentatonism and elaborated on two points. Pentatonism goes back to early ages and is of Asian origins, neverthless there is no clue as to where in Asia pentatonicism comes from. Today the pentatonic structure of Turkish music also confirms that the motherland of pentatonism is Central Asia. Pentatonism is an important issue from the point of Turkish music history. Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal claims that pentatonism belongs to the contemporary Turkish world. But some musicologists do not accept. We know that pentatonism exist even among the Japanese, Scotish, Tuvarek and East Coast Native Americans. Some philosophers claimed that pentatonism expanded by means of past migrations and were used by humans beings in early stages of humen development. All this proves that pentatonism can exist anywhere in the world The main concern of these researchers was to study different pentatonic styles and determine which one could be the Ural-Altay type. The Hungarians discovered one of the pentatonic types. Bela Bârtoc mentioned that the same type was common in Anatolia, based on researches in Adana. The style that is common with Anatolian Turks, is the fundamental form which descends from high pitches to low pitcheSjforming a complete minor scale. This was also confirmed by Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal and Ferruh Arsunar from research that they carried out in Elazığ. A few notes which do not fit this theory can be seen in Mr. Ferruh's real pentatonic folk songs. We can find all of these sounds on Turk musical instruments. XX These writers discuss the underlaying structure of pentatonicism. This some structure is present in a hidden form in Asian music. Ferruh's samples demonstrate this point. Hüseynî is makam (mode) that has its own repertory. Features of this makam, such as its zemin,meyan,karar, and its ambitus are based on a pentatonic structure. Research and investigations concerning the existence of pentatonicism in Turkish folk music began in 1936 in our country with, Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal, Ferruh Arsunar, Ahmet Adnan Saygun. This topic was also discussed in the writings of Ahmet Adnan Saygun in "Türk Halk Musikîsinde Pentatonism," Mahmut Ragıp Gazimihal in 'Türk Halk Müziklerinin Kökeni Meselesi, Türk Halk MüziMerinin Tonal Hususiyetleri Meselesi." Ferruh Arsunar in "Anadolunun Pentatonik Melodileri Hakkında Birkaç Not." In this works and in the research conducted by these writers cited above, the pentatonic character of Turkish melodies was confirmed and thus provided the basis for research to follow. However, research and investigation of this subject has not been pursued subsequent to the afore mentioned works. Folk song with pentatonic characteristics were found in Tunceli-Pertek, Erzurum, Elazığ, Kütahya, Çanakkale, Rize, Trabzon, Erzincan-Eğin and Balıkesir regions. The sum of these constitute completely different style from others. If we had a few pentatonic samples we would have thought this to be an exception. The number of the pentatonic songs proves the links to Asian musical culture. The pentatonic found in the repertory of Kazan and Siberian Turks confirm that they share a common Asian culture. In Hungarian music, pentatonic scales have a descending character. From this point of view the connection between Asian- Anatolian and European pentatonicism is important for Turkish music history. XXI In this thesis I investigate Turkish folk songs from Turkey, İdil-Ural "Tataristan- Başkurdistan-Çuvaşistan" region, the songs of the Erzincan-Merkez district are compared from the perspective of history, art and science. Until now, this subject has been researched in literature and language studies, but not within a musical framework.I Have prepared this thesis for this reason in order to contribute to musical studies and reinstate lost cultural values of the Turkish world. In our research, we find pentatonic scale as (1+1+1 X +1+1 X) an^ (1 X +1+1+1 X +1) formulas. Although it may be possible to create a five note scale by removing two notes from a heptatonic scale, this does not constitute a true pentatonic scale. This is better to define pentatonism as a five-note scale that contains no semi-tones. Theorists have examined pentatonism in other countries as well. Up until recently our folk songs have not been adequately researched. Thus is this thesis we have analyzed and compared nine folk songs from T.R.T. repertory, three folk songs which were collected from Ali EKE, Îdil-Ural regional songs were examined from the perspective of rhythm, melody and literature. In the first section we present an overview of research from Turkey and abroad regarding different forms of analysis and theories concerning pentatonic music. The second section includes information concerning the history, geography and general information on the district of Erzincan-Merkez. In the third section the history, politics and demographic structure of İdil-Ural (Tataristan-Başkurdistan-Çuvaşistan) discussed. The fourth section discusses pentatonic music and the studies carried out in Turkey and the İdil-Ural region. In this section I have also interviews with Albert Kuwezin, Alexi Saaia, Zhenia Tkachev who are professional musicians from Tuva. xxn In the fifth section the folk songs of Erzincan-Merkez and Îdil-Ural region region were analyzed by a schematic method. The sixth section consists of a comparison between Erzincan-Merkez and Îdil-Ural folk songs. In the final section, we demonstrate that the music of the Erzincan-Merkez district is based on a pentatonic substructure. In our research we have used theoretical and experimental methods. Turkish and foreign references were used. We conducted interviews with professors knowledgeable about this subject and exchanged information with the Tataristan and Tuva musicians. I hope this thesis will be helpful for future studies. I am always grateful for individuals listed below for their assistance with the preparation of my thesis. My advisor, assistant professor Dr. Şenel ÖNALDI, the İnstute of Turcology Research head of Turkish Music and promotion department assistant Professor Dr. Rahmi Oruç GÜVENÇ, University of Marmara Faculty, science and literature researcher Erdal ŞAHİN, and also my father Ali Musa EKE.
Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Erzincan-Merkez, Ezgi, Halk müziği, Müzik, Türk halk müziği, İdil-Ural, Erzincan-Merkez, Melody, Folk music, Music, Turkish folk music, Idyıı-Ural