Sinematografik Üretim: Mekân Ve Zaman Deneyiminin Bedenleşmesi

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Tarih
2015-02-20
Yazarlar
Üstün, Ece
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Mimari mekân bedenin deneyimlerini ve anılarını barındırır, bedenin mekân içindeki zaman ile ilişkilenen eylemlerine hacim kazandırır. Beden; algılayan, hisseden ve anımsayan bir özne olarak mimari mekânı kendi içinde var eder. Zaman ise bedenin mekânı algılamasını, anılar olarak barındırmasını ve her yeni algılama anında anımsayarak yeni anılar üretmesini sağlar. Bu sayede mekân, zaman ve beden bütünleşik ve devingen bir ilişki içindedir ve bedenin bir özne olarak bu deneyimi üretmesi sayesinde bu ilişki var olur. Bedenin deneyimi üzerinden var olan bu bütünleşik ilişkide, mimari mekânın beden ve zaman ile ilişkili olarak tasarlanması ve temsil edilmesi amacıyla kullanılan mimari anlatım teknikleri çok önemlidir. Bu teknikler beden, zaman ve mekânın ilişkileri üzerinden ele alındığı sürece yaşanmış mekan (lived space) temsile dâhil edilmiş olur.  Bu araştırma kapsamında bir mimari anlatım tekniği olarak sinematografi, zaman ile bütünleşik olarak yeni bir mekân üretimi sunması ve izleyiciyle bu üretimi bedene kavuşturması bağlamında ele alınmıştır. Sözcük anlamı "hareketin yazımı" olan sinematografi; mekânı ve zamanı beden dışında mekanik olarak üreten, izleyiciyle buluşma anında ise yeniden bedene kavuşturan bir temsil tekniğidir. Sinematografinin kayıt ve kurgu olarak iki aşamalı mekanik üretiminin ilk aşamasında gerçek mekân çizgisel bir zaman düzlemine kaydedilirken, ikinci aşamasında kaydedilmiş mekânlar  parçalanarak yeni bir sıçramalı zaman düzleminde kurgulanır. Mekanik üretimin izleyiciyle buluşma anında ise film bedenle buluşarak beden tarafından yeniden üretilerek bedenleşir. Beden; duyuları, kasları ve belleğiyle bir bütün olarak filmde kendisine sunulan yeni mekân ve zamanı algılayıp kendisinde yeni bir deneyime dönüştürür. Bu deneyim filmde gösterilmeyenin beden tarafından üretilmesine ve filmin bütünlüğe kavuşmasına imkân tanır. Böylece  mimari mekânın sinematografik temsili bedeni, mekân ve zaman üretimine dâhil ederek temsilin hayat bulmasını mümkün kılar. Araştırmada bedenin mekân ve zaman deneyimi fenomenolojik olarak derinleştirilerek sinemanın bu deneyimi üretmesi sinema tekniği ve kuramı okumalarıyla incelenmiştir. Sinemanın oluşumu ve bu oluşum sürecinde kullanılan araçlar; beden, mekân ve zaman ilişkisini bütünleşik temsil edip etmemeleri üzerinden tartışılmıştır. Sonrasında sinemada yapılan üretime odaklanılmış; bu üretim hareketin kaydedilmesi yani mekânın zamanla beraber üretilmesi bağlamında incelenmiştir. Bu üretimde farklı aşamalarda kullanılan tekniklerin filmin izleyicide bedenleşmesiyle beraber nasıl bir mekân ve zaman üretimi sağladıkları film okumalarıyla örneklendirilmiştir.
Architectural space is the shelter for experiences and memories of the body, and is the form to the temporal activities in space. Body generates the space in itself as a perceiving, sensible and recalling subject. Time provides body to perceive and recollect the space and produce new memories by recollecting simultaneously in every moment of perceiving. Thus, space, time and body are in an integrated and dynamic relationship, which comes into existence through the experience of the body. In this integrated relationship existing through bodily experience, the architectural representation techniques are crucial for designing and representing the architectural space interrelated with body and time. As long as these techniques are addressed via the relationship between body, space and time, lived space gets embodied in the representation. This dissertation is a research on cinematography as an architectural representation technique. It starts with the bodily experience of space and time and continues with how the cinematography produces this experience outside of the body and reunites the production with the body. Throughout this research, the spatial and temporal experience of the body is intensified by phenomenology. The production of this experience by cinema is examined through the readings on cinema theory and cinematic techniques. The formation of cinema and the instruments used during this formation process are discussed in terms of representing body, space and time relationship as a whole. The kind of spatial and temporal experiences produced via the embodiment of the techniques, which are used in the different stages of the production, are exemplified by film analyses. In the first part of the research, spatial and temporal experience of the body is studied with the readings on phenomenology. Body is defined by Maurice Merleau-Ponty's term body image. Body image is explained as a sensible and recollecting subject who provides a physical existence of being and provides a physical existence of the world inside the body. Within this context, objects attaining their existence thorough the perception of the body is explained with the concept of embodiment. Embodiment is used in two meanings throughout the research. One is to gain a physical existence. The other is to have this existence in presence of a body. Through the second meaning, the body as the perceiving subject becomes like a shelter for the objects to exist. In this context, different senses of body, providing perception, are examined in detail. Then the integrated relationship among them is investigated. The different senses complete each other and transform into each other due to this interrelated relationship. In the moment of perception also recollection occurs simultaneously. This dynamic and continuous relationship happens in every moment of perception. So this relationship connects present to past in every arriving second. Therefore in the research, this interactive relationship of body and objects are examined by the definitions on time. The different approaches on the notion of time are addressed. Herewith, time definitions of Deleuze and Bergson are indicated in detail. Coexistence of present and past is examined through the perception of 'now' and the remembrance of 'past' which create spatial experience jointly.  Within the scope of this research, production of spatial experience outside of the body is investigated through cinematography as an architectural representation technique. It is analyzed in the context of presenting a new space production directly related with time and embodying this production within the spectator. Cinematography, meaning "writing movement", mechanically produces time and space outside the body and reunites them by embodying this production in the spectatorial body.  First of all, the discovery process of cinematography is researched in an historical frame. Initially Camera Obscura is addressed as the first tool of creating a representation of the bodily vision. The vision is carried out of the human body for the first time and a visual reproduction of space is produced in a dark room. Than the same mechanism is used to create Camera Lucida for to use in perspective drawings. This gave the ability to draw the reflection of the real space on paper and this technique influenced Renaissance perspective drawings. Then allied again with advancement of Camera Obscura, photography is investigated with its features to freeze the time and physicalize the place by distracting it from the body. But photography created a spatial production by separating space from time and freezing the spatial movement. To add time to the frozen space in photography, various attempts like Zoetrope, Praxinoscope, Zoopranxinoscope and Chronophotograph were seen in this period, which inserted movement to photography. Lastly, cinematography, which is recording of time itself, is researched as a combined production of space and time. Cinema produces a brand new space and time outside of the body, apart from the bodily perception. Cinema makes this production by writing down the motion itself, not by freezing time. This revealed the distinction of cinematography from other methods researched under this topic. Furthermore, the cinematographic techniques of recording and recreating space associated with time are researched. In the fourth section of the research, the different tools and techniques of cinematography that provide the space and time production are explored. The mechanical production of cinematography consists of two phases: recording and editing. In the first phase, real space is recorded on a linear temporal plane. In the second phase recorded spaces are fragmentized and edited on a new temporal plane. In analyzing this mechanical production firstly, the main tool camera is considered as a mechanical eye, which provides a production of physical vision out of the body. It creates the physical boundaries of space and defines the seen and the unseen in the filmic space. The notions of in-frame and out-of-frame explain that definition of space by the camera. The spatial and temporal production changing by means of different angles, viewpoints, positions and movements of camera is investigated. Following, cutting the records into fragments and fictionalizing new space and time combinations via montage are researched. The formation of a new meaningful whole by relating fragments by montage is mentioned through movie examples related to the experience of spectator with the spatial experience created in the movie. Following the mechanical production, in the moment of encountering with the spectator, film is embodied by the reproduction of space and time in the body. Body, as a whole with its senses, muscles and memories, perceives the presented filmic space and time, and reproduces it as a new experience in itself. This experience enables the unseen in the film to be completed by the body and film to attain unity. By this way the cinematographic representation of the architectural space enables the representation to come into life by including the body in the production of space and time.  In the final section the engagement of the space and time designed with cinematographic techniques with the spectatorial body is explained. Physical conditions of the film watching activity are examined within the scope of the projector, projecting light, projective surface. Later on, the experience of the spectator is analyzed on the basis of continuous perception and recollection, which is explained in the first section. This examination revealed that, at the moment of the spectatorial experience movie is no longer a mechanical production but a part of the body image. This condition is again held by the notion of embodiment. The embodiment of the film inside the spectator transforms the space and time presented in the film and ends with a brand new production by the spectatorial body. In the research the production done by the spectator is examined through the cinematographic techniques: long shot, deframe, pan and tilt, dolly and dolly zoom. These techniques are examined via the movies related, which include architectural space designs. The additional production done by the spectator to the cinematographic production is visualized through layered collages formed with architectural drawings, diagrams and screenshots taken from the related scenes. At the end of these examinations, the final experience produced by both the cinematographic production and the additions done by the spectatorial body is exhibited. Finally the potentials of these techniques on architectural representation are discussed.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Mimarlık Deneyimi,  Sinematografik Temsil,  Mimari Temsil, Architectural Experience,  Cinematographic Representation,  Architectural Representation
Alıntı