İstanbul Kentsel Mekanında Gündelik Taktikler

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Tarih
2015-08-11
Yazarlar
Sakal, Ali
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
İSTANBUL KENTSEL MEKANINDA GÜNDELİK TAKTİKLER ÖZET Bu çalışma, De Certeau' nun 'taktik' kavramı üzerinden yola çıkarak kentsel mekan içerisindeki 'taktik' e, 'taktiksel mekan' a yoğunlaşır. Tez, kentsel mekan içerisindeki yetke sahip gücün 'strateji' lerine ve kentsel mekandaki zorlamalarına karşı sıradan kentlinin 'gündelik hayat' taki taktiksel mekanları, yaratıcı üretimleri ve fikirlerini ortaya çıkarmak, yapılarını anlamak ve somutlaştırmak için çaba harcar. Tez kapsamında bu taktiksel mekanın ve üretimlerin karakterleri, stratejilere karşı nasıl ayakta durabildikleri ortaya konulmuştur. Taktiksel mekan ve üretimlerin varlığı, içinde yaşadığımız İstanbul kentinde gözlemler yaparak keşfedilmiş; İstanbul üzerinden verilen örnekler ile somutlaştırılmıştır. Yapılarına dair elde edilecek bilgiler neticesinde de 'Günümüz ve gelecek kentsel mekan tasarımları içerisine alınabilir mi, bunun için yeterli potansiyele sahipler mi?' sorularına cevaplar bulmaya çalışılır.  İlk olarak, 'gündelik hayat' ve onun içindeki 'sıradan insan' tanımlanır. Sıradan insan olarak tariflediğimiz kentli kullanıcının stratejilere, ihtiyaç ve kent yaşamına adaptasyon sürecinde karşılaştığı problemlere karşı üretim biçimi olan gündelik hayatta 'taktik' kavramı tariflenir. Aslında bu taktiklere benzer uygulamaların bir çok Avrupa ülkesinde ve Amerika' da birer planlama stratejisi olarak kullanıldığından örnekler verilerek taktiksel kentleşme (tactical urbanism) başlığı altında söz edilir. Burada gündelik hayatta taktiksel fikirlerin ve üretimlerin kentsel mekana nasıl uygulandığı, bunları kentsel mekanı nasıl dönüştürdüğü gösterilmek istenir. Kentsel mekana nasıl bir katkı sağlayabileceğine vurgu yapılmış, 'niçin araştırılmalı' sorusuna verilebilecek  cevaplardan biri olduğu anlatılmaya çalışılmıştır. Birer kentsel planlama stratejisi olmasa da gündelik hayat içerisindeki buna benzer üretimleri, mekanları, yaratıcı fikirleri çekip çıkarmak, onların da kentsel mekan ile kurabileceği ya da kurduğu ilişkilerin anlaşılması için çaba harcanmıştır. Somut örnekleri görmek, bulmak ve anlamak için İstanbul' da kent mekanları taranarak, bir bölü bir ölçek ile deneyimlenmiştir. Taktiksel nitelikli oluşumların nasıl birer taktik tanımı aldıklarını anlatmak için 'eskiz' kullanılmıştır. Kentsel mekanda taktiğin süreci, yapısal detayları, mevcut kentsel mekan ile kurduğu ilişkiler eskizlerde çizim tekniği ve alınan notlar ile belirtilmeye çalışılmıştır. İstanbul kentsel mekanında yapılan gözlemler ve eskizler ile sıradan insanın stratejilere karşı oluşturduğu taktiklerine bakıldığında bunların genellikle kentsel mekanda oraya özgü, mekansal anlamda orayı biçimlendiren, dönüştüren üretimler olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Daha önce edebi olarak anlamdırılan ve gündelik hayatta görsellerine ulaşılan taktiklerin, bu kez mekan ile etkileşimi üzerine durulmuştur. Kentteki gündelik hayat ve mekan yapısına nasıl katkıda bulunduğu, değiştirdiği, adapte olduğu görseller ve sonunda basit şemalar ile anlatılmaya çalışılmıştır.  Sonuç bölümünde kentin içindeki taktiksel üretimler ve fikirler mekansal açıdan potansiyelleri ve gelecek olasılıkları yönünden olmak üzere iki farklı bölümde değerlendirme yapılmak istenmiştir. Taktiklerin kentsel mekan içinde sadece orada duran oluşumlar olmadıkları, mekanın kendisi ile ilintili oldukları ve kentin sosyal ve fiziksel yapısına, kentlinin ihtiyaç, eksiklik ve problemlerine dair bir çok bilgi veren taktiksel üretimlerin kent varlığını sürdürdükçe farklı şekillerde onların da varlıklarını sürdürecekleri vurgusu yapılmıştır. Kentli tarafından mevcut mekanlar taktiksel mekanlar olarak tekrar dönüştürülürken kenti de dönüştürdüklerinin bir gerçek olduğunun, kentsel stratejilere rağmen her zaman varolabileceklerinin altı çiizilecektir.
THE DAILY TACTICS IN İSTANBUL URBAN SPACE SUMMARY This study focuses on the 'tactic' and 'tactical space' in the urban space by regarding to  De Certeau' s 'tactic' term. Thesis tries finding out the structure of  the ordinary man' s tactical spaces, creative productions and ideas in the daily life in urban space against the executive power' s strategies. The thesis context shows how these tactical spaces and productions can exist in despite of these strategies in city life. The existence of the tactical spaces and productions are discovered by doing observations in the city, İstanbul;  are embodied by giving examples from İstanbul too. According to the information got about their structures such questions are tried to be answered 'Can they be used as nowaday's and future's urban space design concepts and do they have enough potential for that?'.  Thus, primarily, to understand the city users' daily tactical productions in the urban space  daily life and ordinary man, are defined to find answers to these questions. Actually, daily life and urban space are two different terms which are feeding and connected eachother. Because according to De Certeau, the urban space is a place at same time to accomadate the city users' daily activities such as eating, walking around, shopping, speaking with eachother.  And after that the daily life and urban space is related with tactic and strategy. The strategy which is applied by the executive power in a programmable way and with laws, is described. On the other hand, the city user's (who is  described as 'ordinary man' in daily life) tactic term that is a kind of production material because of his problems and needs during the living and adaptation process in city life, is identified. And the conrtast between tactic and startegies is emphasized. However, it is also explained that they affect eachother and generally strategy is a reason, tactic is a result. They survive echother in the daily life in urban space. The city user who has need to live in the city, is the subject who uses the tactics and tactical space against to the strategical implementations. They start to create their own spaces, ideas and productions by leaking the cracks of the city spaces and laws. Some design mobile devices to sell meal or objects, some design his house under a restaurant' s bancony, some use building' s niches to sell books or some put small tables or chairs in the street to attract more customer for his cafe.  Actually there are some similar practices of these tactics in many Europe countries and United States. They use them as urban planing strategy and these are refered in tactical urbanism. In that chapter, how the tactical ideas and productions are applied to the urban space and how they transform the urban space are tried to show. In the paper, the result of an accurate analysis of the tactics emphasized the answer of " why should investigate the urban space". They are served as reactions againts the designed and abstract spaces which are not used by or do not have any attractions for city users. So that they decide to fix such areas and spaces in the urban space by transforming them in a tactical way and they call this as 'tactical urbanism'. They transform the car park areas in the street to a green area to sing or sit, they close the roads in a day of the week to come together and socialize, they destroy the stone pavement areas to get more soil surface to grow plants there. It is possible to increase such examples as tactical urbanism activites to make the urban spaces better for citizens.  Even if they are not included in the planing strategies, it is tried to understand the relation between urban space by giving examples  that kind of productions and ideas in daily life. Urban places are surveyed in Istanbul to find,  see, understand and hunt the concrete examples. They were experienced in one to one scale. The walking activity for experiencing and observing the city spaces is used as a method. The found tactics   are photographed and drawn as sketches. In the sketches it is wanted to show that the process of the tactic in the urban space, the creative construction details and the relation between the tactic and space by drawing techniques and written notes on.  With the observations and skecthes in İstanbul urban space when the ordinary city user's  tactical productions are analyzed, it is seen that these are generally indigenous, reform and transform the area in a spatial way, too beside the socialogical effects. After explaining the tactical examples in a literal way and describing them, the interaction between tactic and urban space is focused on. It is tried to explain that how they contribute, change, adapt to the daily life and space in the city by visual elements and basic diagrams. As conclusion, the tactical productions and  ideas in the city are evaluated in two different chapter as their potentials according to the space and future possibilities. It was aimed to prove that tactics in the urban space are not the only object which are just staying there but also they give informations about social and physical sturcture of the today's metropols and the city users'  needs, lacks, problems at same time.  First, as spatial approach, the tactics use the existing urban space and its elements as opportunities. Space has opportunity for another use or function for the city user  so, the city user sees and creates alternative uses from that space for himself. For instance, a vendor selling  tea and coffee with a mobile portable car finds a public desk and adds  small table and chairs to that desk. He creates his own small mobile cafe. He knows how to use the existing elements of the urban space. For his economical needs he transform the opportunities of the existing urban space into a tactical space for himself. And beside this, he changes the daily life in that place. Instead of just sitting and looking around on a small public desk, he serves another function to the city users. They can have coffee or tea at same time and thanks to the added small table and chairs more people can come together and socialize. Similar to this example, city users be aware of the oppotunities of the space and they transform, change and leak into it. They diverse the urban space with creative and different uses. The diversed urban space proves that the city has a heterogeneous structure and hybrid spaces. This helps to enrich the urban space. Second, tactics make the city dependent to themselves. By time they have an important place in the daily life of the city. They start to eliminate the lacks of the planned city life. For instance, in İstanbul it is possible to find something to eat in anytime of the day. Generally, after midnight many restaurants are closed in many cities. However in İstanbul even if they are closed it is possible to find food from vendors who are selling many different things with their small mobile cars at nights. Many citizens in Istanbul know about this and these kind of tactics form the city's and citizens' daily life. When they are removed from the cogwheel of the city, something can start to go wrong or change completely. The city will always have a potential for such creative, tactical spaces and ideas. In the urban space, alternative spaces and uses will be always created and diversed and by the time while urban conditions are being changed, new physical, social relations and urban spaces will appear. For now, even if  tactic places in the opposite side againts to the urban strategies, for future the tactic and tactical spaces which has already existed in the daily urban space, can be integrated into and   adapted to planning strategies to create bigger scale impacts with small implementations. So that, it can be possible to design cities by developing with the tactics. Even if the reverse happens or the result is negative, while the city users's  adapting process to the city, the needs, requests and surviving attempts in the city continue,  the tactic will continue, too. Despite of the planners', law makers' strategies and sanctions, the city users will continue to produce in the city stage.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Taktik, Taktiksel Mekan, Kamusal Mekan, Strateji, İstanbul, Tactic, Tactical Space, Urban Space, Strategy, Istanbul.
Alıntı