Geomatik Mühendisliği Nde İş Güvenliği

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Tarih
2013-09-13
Yazarlar
Akçay, Haydar Muhammed
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
İş kazaları ve meslek hastalıkları günümüzde çalışma hayatında insanların en ciddi sağlık sorunu haline gelmiştir. İş kazaları sebebiyle her yıl binlerce insan hayatını kaybetmekte veya sakat kalmaktadır. Buna ek olarak ciddi iş gücü ve ekonomik kayıplar da yaşanmaktadır. İş güvenliği, bütün bu kayıpların yaşanmaması için çok önemli bir konudur. Geomatik Mühendisliği icraatı gereği harita üretimi haricinde mühendislik gerektiren hemen hemen bütün sektörlerde olmazsa olmaz bir mühendislik dalıdır. Literatürde inşaat, maden, gemicilik gibi sektörlerde iş güvenliği konusunda akademik çalışmalar bulunmaktadır. Ancak bu sektörlerde kilit bir göreve sahip olan ve çalışırken çok farklı iş kazalarına maruz kalabilen Geomatik Mühendisliği çalışanları (mühendis, tekniker, topograf, şenör vb.) için yapılmış yeterli akademik çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Bu konudaki eksiklikten yola çıkılarak bu tez çalışmasında Geomatik Mühendislerinin ve çalışma arkadaşlarının (ölçme ekibi) çalıştıkları birçok sektörde maruz kaldıkları ve/veya kalabilecekleri tehlikeler, riskler ve iş kazaları ele alınmıştır. Çalışma toplam üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. Giriş bölümünde genel olarak iş güvenliğinin öneminden ve bu konudaki bazı sıkıntılardan bahsedilmiş, çalışmanın amacı ve kapsamı belirtilerek konu ile ilgili terimlerin tanımları açıklanmıştır. Daha sonra iş kazalarının sebepleri ve maliyetleri konusunda bilgilere yer verilmiştir İş güvenliği konusunun tarihi gelişiminden bahsedilmiş, Uluslararası Çalışma Örgütü nün faaliyetlerine değinilmiştir. Türkiye de iş güvenliği konusunda hukuki mevzuat incelenmiştir. Avrupa Birliği ile uyum yasaları ve İş Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemlerine yer verilmiş, OHSAS 18001 İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemi tanıtılmıştır. İkinci bölümde risk değerlendirmesi hakkında bilgilere yer verilmiştir. Risk değerlendirmesinin İş sağlığı ve Güvenliği ile ilgili yasalardaki yeri belirtilmiş ve İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği nde risk yönetimi açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde Geomatik Mühendisliği nde İş Güvenliği konusu Arazi İşleri ve Ofis İşleri olmak üzere iki ana başlık altında incelenmiştir. Arazi işleri konusu altında arazi ölçmeleri ve mühendislik projelerindeki çalışmalar (üstyapı, altyapı vb.) esnasında karşılaşılabilecek risk ve tehlikelerden bahsedilerek çalışma sırasında alınması gereken önlemlerden kısaca bahsedilmiştir. Ofis işleri başlığı altında Ergonomi nin önemine değinilerek ergonomik çalışmanın gerekliliği açıklanmıştır.
Occupational accidents and diseases are the most serious health problem for employees nowadays. Thousands of people die or disable every year due to occupational accidents. In addition, serious labour force and economic losses happens. Occupational Safety is very important issue to prevent these loses. Occupational accidents and diseases are more vital especially for countries which do not have enough hospitals and health workers as doctors and nurses. Everyday, tens of people visit hospitals due to simple or serious occupational accidents and diseases. Most of issues as injury, cancer, herniated disc and other health problems that requires physical terapy caused due to unsafe and unhealthy working conditions. As a matter of fact, many hospitals can not be able to supply enough health service under this patient traffic. As a result of this, quality of treatment and service to the patients decreseas. In addition, countries economy and companies could be under serious economic weight. Aside delays on work schedule, losing of qualified workers is a really economic problem. Also, after an occupational accident, working performance of other workers decreases spontaneously. Geomatics Engineering is very important not only for map production, but also for almost all Engineering works. There are many academic studies on occupational safety for construction, mining and naval architecturing sectors in literature. However, there is no sufficient academic studies found (in Literature search) for Geomatics Engineering which has a critical duty for all these sectors and also which has different types of occupational accidents. Based on this deficiency, occupational accidents, dangers and risks for Geomatics Engineers and their co-workers (survey team) are investigated in this thesis study. The study consists of three chapters. In introduction chapter, in general, the aim and contents of the study are indicated. Terms as employee, employer, deputy employer, insurant, working place, incident, accident, occupational accident, occupational disease, temporaray incapability of working, permanent incapability of working, occupational safety which are about the topic are explained. Then, importance of occupational safety is mentioned. Under the topic of importance of occupational safety, reasons of occupational accidents and costs of occupational accidents is provided. After that, historical process of occupational safety is mentioned. First attempts on occupational safety and developments in this topic both in the world and Turkey are explained. The activities of International Labour Organization (ILO) is also mentioned. Judicial procedure in Turkey is investigated for a better understanding of the topic. Effectuation dates of Occupational Safety and Health Code (in Turkey) which is published at 20.06.2012 are listed. The other laws (Labor Code, Obligations Code, Social Insurances and General Health Code, Turkish Criminal Code) which contain occupational safety matters are also mentioned. Regularities for complying to European Union explained and information about occupational health and safety management systems are given. OHSAS 18001 (Occupational Health and Safety Assesment Series) is introduced. Components of a succesful management system as generel essentials, occupational safety policy, planning, application and running, control and corrective activities, revising of administration are summarized. In the second chapter, definition of risk is given and general risk factors are indicated. These factors are specified as; based on physical work area, based on workers behaviors, based on organizing types of work, based on management systems. Risk assessment in Turkish laws is indicated. Risk management on occupational safety and health is explained. Also, benefits of risk management and risk management process are explained and illustrated on table. Risk management process are explained under 7 stages. These are; “determining of dangers”, “risk analyzing”, “assesment of risks”, “determining of control precautions”, “execution of control precautions”, “monitoring and revision”, “communication and solidatory”. In chapter three, occupational safety in Geomatics Engineering is investigated in two main topics as Field Works and Office Works . On Field Works, it is stated that tehere can be many differnet types of risks and dangers can be faced by survey team. However, there are some risks and dangers which were already faced by survey teams before. To generalize and summarize these, some main risks and dangers as “falling down-sliping-descending”, “stone-rock-land sliping”, “dust infection to eyes”, “nail-thorn pricking”, “electricity-lightning pound”, “explosion and burning”, “botulism”, “animal attacks”, “getting lost”, “sun stroke”, “freezing or burning due to weather conditions”, “radiation”, “cronical joints aches”, “people threats-attacks” are indicated. There are many geomatics engineers who work in engineering projects. Most of these projects are construction projects. To analyze risks and dangers more accurately, these projects are classified as “superstructure works”, “infrastructure works” and “transportation works”. Some statistical data about occupational accidents and deaths in building constructions, channel constructions and highway constructions are showed in tables. Furthermore, mining measurements and hydrographic measurements also investigated as uniqe works in Geomatics Engineering. Mostly observed occupational accidents in superstructure works (buildings, shopping centers, skyscrappers, public buildings, hotels, airports etc.) are shown as “falling down of workers due to the height of structure”, “material falling”, “material spattering (nail etc.)”. Mechanical construction devices are also stated as another serious risk factor for survey team in these works. Some superstructure projects such as airport projects are worked as skift (7 days 24 hours). In these works, to make measurement under darkness is also indicated as increasing factor of all risks and dangers for survey team. It is indicated that in infrastructure works such as “channel construction”, “power plants (electricity, natural gas)”, “sewage construction”, the most frequently faced occupational accident is “falling and sliping of edge of excavation area”. “Sliping of stone and earth” is also specified as the other dangereous and often faced risk for survey team. Also some wrong and correct infrastructure works are illustrated with pictures. Transportation works (motorways, bridges, viaducts, underpasses, overpasses, tunnels, railways etc.) are defined as the most exhaustive works for Geomatics Engineers due to long distance of routes and different types of works. In transportation works there are different types of construction teams (earthwork, structures, drainage, paving, finishing) which work in same area simultaneously. As a result of this tempo, many different occupational accidents happens. According to statistics the most observed occupational accident is based on mechanical construction devices. This problem examplified especially for device operators carelessness while working. Because of their concentration, they can forget survey team who makes measurements in same area. As a result of this, many occupational accidents can be faced. Traffic accidents in construction area are also indicated as other most frequently faced accidents in transportation works. Traffic is also stated as the most important risk for survey team who makes “Deformation Measurements (Settlement Readings)” of structures which requires serious concantration. Spattering of materials as nails also considered among remarkable risks for survey team. In tunnel works, beside ordinary risks for all workers some uniqe risks and accidents also mentioned. Mining measurements are one of the most dangerous works for Geomatics Engineers and survey team. Mining measurements are investigated as “open mines (overground)” and “closed mines (underground)”. Working in open mines contains risks and dangers similar to infrastructure works and excavation works. Working in closed mines has risks and dangers similar to tunnel works. The most dangerous accident is stated as earth collapsing in these mines. Psychological factors of working underground without sufficient air and illumination are also indicated as other risks for survey team. Harmful gases and dust density can be assumed as plus risks for both open and closed mines. Occupational safety in hydrographic measurements is investigated in two sub-topics as “bathymetry” and “diving”. Electrical shock and boat accidents are mentioned as risks for bathymetry stage while suffocating is stated as main risk in diving stage due to different reasons. Finally, importance of Ergonomics is emphasized for Office Works and requirements of ergonomic designed working is explained and also illustrated with figures.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2013
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2013
Anahtar kelimeler
geomatik mühendisliği, iş güvenliği, harita mühendisliği, jeodezi ve fotogrametri mühendisliği, geomatics engineering, occupational safety, geodesy and photogrammetry engineering, survey engineering, surveying engineering
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