Korumada Yeni Bir Dönem Ve Yeni Bir Yerleşim Yenimahalle

Yılmaz, Serpil Yalçın
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Yenimahalle, Cumhuriyet rejiminin ilkelerinin gerçekleşmesi açısından, imar planlan, ucuz arsa-kredi programlan ve özel yasalarla desteklenen, çağdaş bir kent parçası oluşturulmaya çalışılmış örneklerden biridir ve günümüzde, karşımıza koruma iradesinin oluşması ve geliştirilmesi boyutuyla çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında, ilk olarak, ilk yerleşim alanının yapıldığı zaman diliminin tarihi bir dönem olarak algılanıp algılanmadığı ve Yenimahallenin korumaya değer bir çevre oluşturup oluşturmadığı tartışılmıştır. Yakın geçmiş olmasına rağmen, günümüzde, yasal ve ekonomik koşullann böyle bir kent parçasını yaratılabilir kılmaması ve koruma düşüncesinin geliştirilmesi açısından uygun bir sosyal altyapı sunması Yenimahalle'yi korunur yapan özelliklerden biri olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Bu konuda, kullanıcının yakın tarihe ait kentsel konutla olan duygusal bağı, yapıları yok etmeye dönük ekonomik etkenler, dokunun bugünkü yerleşmelere göre sağladığı yeşil, ışık, doku ve ses gibi avantaj lan ve korumaya ilişkin motivasyonlan saptanmıştır. Yenimahallede yaratılan fiziksel çevre bileşenleri ve sosyal yapı incelendiğinde koruma düşüncesinin yeni kent oluşumunun olumsuzluklanna bir tepki olarak geliştiği görülmüştür. İkinci olarak, Yenimahalle'nin oluşum süreci, yasal ve sosyal altyapı, 1950- 1952'li yılların politik ve ekonomik ortamı araştınlarak, Yenimahalle'nin değişim süreci, bu transformasyonun nedenleri, son dönemde karşılaşılan hızlı değişim baskısının neden ve sonuçlan irdelenmiş, Yenimahalle'nin tanımlayıcılan, konumu, fiziksel saptamalar, eski ve yeni binalardaki mimari özellikler belirlenmiştir. Son olarak, Yenimahalle'de tarihi çevre koruma planını oluşturan koruma imar planının ve planı tanımlayan çevreye uyumlu binalann yapılması, otopark sorunu, yaya ve araç trafiği, sağlıklaştırma ve restorasyon ilkelerini içeren koruma projesinin altyapısı oluşturulmuştur.
At the beginning of the 20'th century, Ankara was a small Anatolian town. However, after the declaration of the Republic, Ankara was the new capital of the Turkey, which reflects the landscape of the new Republican regime. The decision of restoration of Yenimahalle settlement area raised first time as the will of its inhabitants, which is an example in any urban settlement in our Period. There is no restoration plan prepared for Yenimahalle, yet. On the other hand, the historical importance attributed to this quarter, its social, physical, cultural characteristics and its inhabitants for the restoration proved to be of primary importance. Personal applications for the conservation to the Ankara Protection Board of Cultural and Natural Resources are uncommon. Put here the inhabitants propose that unless a protection-development plan is prepared, Municipality should not give any licence for new constructions. The Board decided to recommend Yenimahalle Municipality to cooperate with the Greater Ankara and prepare a package for conservation and application. Yenimahalle is to be analysed, particularly, for the development of restoration concept rather than its aesthetic aspects and historical importance. Yenimahalle case may be taken as an example of social content of restoration providing as a rare attitude of urban dwellers to protect this environment against the invasion of apartment life. Xlll Yenimahalle mass dwelling construction programme was on of the early and successful examples of a building programme that has a well defined, social solution to lodging problem of the capital, successfully applied. Physical character of Yenimahalle represents the new life and living standards of the post Period. Administrators of this Period wanted to show a suburban dwelling concept. They specially promulgated two laws for Yenimahalle fit to the modernisation concept of the Republican area in order to make a model for the contemporary development of Ankara. These two laws prepared a legal means for the establishment of a complete infrastructure for Yenimahalle application. And Ankara Municipality prepared a plan accordingly to those regulations and an infrastructure programme was initiated, before starting the buildings. The law gave priority to people who have jobs, regular incomes and own no illegal building. Thus, social structure of Yenimahalle was determined. For a determined social stratum, five types of dwelling were prepared, including double and row houses and block were chosen. Infrastructure, typology and social selection determined the character proper of the Yenimahalle Region. In this study, through a close connections with users, and studying the new building development of the suburban area, economic measures and incentives which encourage people to demolish old buildings, comparatively sound living qualities provided by the old texture and the motivation of the users for the conservation of their buildings are studied and analysed. Social content, hopes and if the user's and owner's demands concerning change and conservation were established by a questionnaire and personal intentions submitted to the residents of the two streets of Yenimahalle primary study area. Most of the Yenimahalle inhabitants were satisfied for life quality in low densely, detached xiv garden houses, and are against new developments by uncontrolled building speculation. In fact, their reaction constitutes the main base for conservation. In chapter 3, 1/200 scaled measured drawings of the houses in the conservation area are presented. Physical aspect of the architectural and urban environment is presented by the drawings of necessary facades, sections and details. First changes in the area were started by the inhabitants, gradually deteriorative, means of owners forced them to divide their ground floors to rent. Some double-houses were rearranged for the independent use of two families. An important characteristic valued by the inhabitants is the relative density of green. In my survey the density of trees are given. Gardens are active green areas and in the social life of the inhabitants' gardens play an important role. I think what actually gives the owners the satisfaction is the level of density of the built area : less density more sense of liberation from the buildings, more space to move and, at least usually, to enjoy. Yenimahalle district is in the process of fast transformation. The following is the result of : - A major issue is the lack of planning. As everywhere in Turkey, building decisions of the municipality level are taken to satisfy the greed of speculators and the common people. From 1940's to 1990's, almost in each change of political power, new permits to increase the number of storeys was given by municipalities. Thus, Yenimahalle became an attractive area of investment for those contractors, who demolished old houses, built higher apartment and shared the new buildings with the owners. - Ffigh density building became the credential mechanism to obtain votes. xv - The change of social structure has also been an important factor. Younger generations increased in number preferred to have their own flat, instead of living in the same house with their parents and brothers and sisters, to give the house to a contractor was the only way to own an independent flat. - The obsolescence of the old toilets, showers and kitchens had to be required to meet the new demands of comfort. But in most cases the financial means of the inhabitants was inadequate to renew their houses. Speculation, politics, physical obsolescence, change of taste, rising member family all contributed to the transformation Yenimahalle and demolition of old houses has been particularly accelerated in recent decade. But the fact that few original inhabitants are willing to keep the old order, two or three storey houses with small gardens, despite radical changes in their immediate environment, their perseverance ended with the proclamation of their quarter as an area of protection. There are some urgent planning decisions to be made: - Firstly, in the conservation area additional storeys have to be forbidden. - Secondly, a Conservation-Renewal Project is to be prepared with the following programme: 1- To establish the nature of deterioration of fabric of the buildings, particularly wet spaces have to prove contemporary life quality. Heating system in the buildings need upgrading and be changed into natural gas system. Waste water, fresh water electricity networks have to be renewed. Other easy repairs for example painting and whitewash works have to be made. Necessary door and window frames have to be changed. Roofing materials and frames have to be renewed. XVI 2- To establish the demands of the owners concerning inadequate services and prepare a programme for upgrading, sanitation, electricity, heating system. 3- Second level of the programme is making adjustment plan to prepare restoration projects for individual buildings. To do this, horizontal streets comprised by the planned area have to be closed to traffic. Parking need shall not be supplied in building area and be solved in a mass, compact way and building area shall have more green. 4- New layout for the conservation plan - with a new plan for traffic, parking and common green areas. This Conservation-Renewal Programme is presented in this thesis.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Ankara-Yenimahalle; Restorasyon; Tarihi koruma; Tarihi çevre, Ankara-Yenimahalle ;Restoration ;Historic preservation ;Historical environment